Edited by Juanita De Barros, Audra Diptee, and David V. Trotman, 35–67. On March 31, 1492, the Catholic Monarch ordered the expulsion of the Jews in Spain who refused to convert to Christianity. The Catholic Historical Review 64.2 (1978): 168-184. The presence of other European powers in the Caribbean, with the English in Barbados (1627), St Kitts (1623–25), and Jamaica (1655); the Dutch in Curaçao, and the French in Saint Domingue (Haiti) (1697), Martinique, and Guadeloupe had broken the integrity of the closed Spanish mercantile system and established thriving sugar colonies. You could not be signed in, please check and try again. Where the Spaniards had exclusive access to horses in warfare, they had an advantage over indigenous warriors on foot. [140] With the 1992 commemoration (and critique) of Columbus, more cinematic and television depictions of the era appeared, including a TV miniseries with Gabriel Byrne as Columbus. A checkerboard pattern radiated outward. [3][4] [5][6][1] This has been argued to be the first large-scale act of genocide in the modern era. The Spanish brought new crops for cultivation. What can be called the visions of the vanquished, indigenous accounts written in the sixteenth century, are a rare case of history being written by those other than the victors. [126], Native populations declined significantly during the period of Spanish expansion. The upper echelons of colonial society were dominated by Spaniards, who held all of the positions of economic privilege and political power. David Lambert explores how this system changed the region, and how enslaved people continued to resist colonial rule. breaks new ground in articulating the early Spanish According to the French historian Jean Dumont The Valladolid debate was a major turning point in world history “In that moment in Spain appeared the dawn of the human rights”. 4 pages, 1535 words. [89][90] For the Andean area, there are an increasing number of publications as well. First published in 1978. Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content on Filed Under: Term Papers. Silver was the bonanza the Spaniards sought. The region overseen by the archbishop was divided into large units, the diocese, headed by a bishop. Spaniards had seen the disappearance of the indigenous populations in the Caribbean, and with that, the disappearance of their main source of wealth, propelling Spaniards to expand their regions of control. 1550-1600) to subdue them, but peace was only achieved by Spaniards’ making significant donations of food and other commodities the Chichimeca demanded. Pedro de Mendoza and Domingo Martínez de Irala, who led the original expedition, went inland and founded Asunción, Paraguay, which became the Spaniards' base. Seeking their own share of the apparent wealth the Spanish found in the Caribbean islands, other European powers moved to establish their own settlements in the region in the seventeenth century. Even though Castile and Aragon were ruled jointly by their respective monarchs, they remained separate kingdoms so that when the Catholic Monarchs gave official approval for the plans for Columbus’s voyage to reach "the Indies" by sailing West, the funding came from the queen of Castile. Viceroyalties were the largest territory unit of administration in the civil and religious spheres and the boundaries of civil and ecclesiastical governance coincided by design, to ensure crown control over both bureaucracies. The introduction of sheep production was an ecological disaster in places where they were raised in great numbers, since they ate vegetation to the ground, preventing the regeneration of plants.[52]. 1875. Warren, J. 5, p. 253. The crown established the audiencia in 1549. #Cuba #PuertoRico #DominicanRepublicFor video topic suggestions email me at vbxfamilia@yahoo.com ! By 1655, when Jamaica was captured from a small Spanish garrison, English colonies had been established in Nevis, Antigua, and Montserrat. General History of the Caribbean. "Blasco Núñez Vela" in Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture, vol. Gold existed in only small amounts, and the indigenous peoples died off in massive numbers. The Spanish Caribbean and the Atlantic World in the Long Sixteenth Century breaks new ground in articulating the early Spanish Caribbean as a distinct and diverse group of colonies loosely united under Spanish rule for roughly a century prior to the establishment of other European colonies. [144] A 1995 Bolivian-made film is in some ways similar to Even the Rain is To Hear the Birds Singing, with a modern film crew going to an indigenous settlement to shot a film about the Spanish conquest and end up replicating aspects of the conquest. Legal History of the State and Church in 18th Century New ... Mestizaje and the Legacy of José María Arguedas, Military Government in Latin America, 1959–1990, Military Institution in Colonial Latin America, The, Modern Decorative Arts and Design, 1900–2000, Native Presence in Postconquest Central Peru. The crown created civil and religious structures to administer this vast territory. Some masters were British while others were Spanish, and French. [22][23] Even by the mid-1510s, the western Caribbean was largely unexplored by Spaniards. Puerto Rico continues to be a possession of the United States, now officially continues as a self-governing unincorporated territory. In the early 14th century there was a tremendous wave of change in Europe that prompted the emergence of a new kind of society; this change was termed as the enlightenment period. "Social climbers: Changing patterns of mobility among the Indians of colonial Peru." Five hundred Spaniards did not topple the Aztec Empire alone. As was the case in peninsular Spain, Africans (negros) were able buy their freedom (horro), so that in most of the empire free Blacks and Mulatto (Black + Spanish) populations outnumbered slave populations. The Chichimeca in northern Mexico, the Comanche in the northern Great Plains and the Mapuche in southern Chile and the pampas of Argentina resisted Spanish conquest. 15 vols. [68], Beginning in 1522 in the newly conquered Mexico, government units in the Spanish Empire had a royal treasury controlled by a set of oficiales reales (royal officials). [74], The indigenous populations in the Caribbean became the focus of the crown in its roles as sovereigns of the empire and patron of the Catholic Church. The early Caribbean proved a massive disappointment for Spaniards, who had hoped to find mineral wealth and exploitable indigenous populations. Mercury was a monopoly of the crown. The leader of the expedition pledged the larger share of capital to the enterprise, which in many ways functioned as a commercial firm. The cabildo was composed of the prominent residents (vecinos) of the municipality, so that governance was restricted to a male elite, with majority of the population exercising power. Hispanic American Historical Review 53.4 (1973): 581-599. [39], The spectacular conquests of central Mexico (1519-21) and Peru (1532) sparked Spaniards' hopes of finding yet another high civilization. With a hostile indigenous population, no obvious mineral or other exploitable resources, and little strategic value, Chile was a fringe area of colonial Spanish America, hemmed in geographically by the Andes to the east, Pacific Ocean to the west, and indigenous to the south. Many parts of the Americas soon came to be under the rule of Europeans, resulting in large migrations, exchange of … #Cuba #PuertoRico #DominicanRepublicFor video topic suggestions email me at vbxfamilia@yahoo.com ! The crown attempted to curb Spaniards' exploitation, banning Spaniards' bequeathing their private grants of indigenous communities' tribute and encomienda labor in 1542 in the New Laws. With the conquests of the Aztec and Inca empires, large numbers of Spaniards emigrated from the Iberian peninsula to seek their fortune or to pursue better economic conditions for themselves. [155], For the independence era, the 2016 Bolivian-made film made about Mestiza independence leader Juana Azurduy de Padilla is part of the recent recognition of her role in the independence of Argentina and Bolivia. Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca was one of four survivors of that expedition, writing an account of it. "[103] As with many colonial institutions, corregimiento had its roots in Castile when the Catholic Monarchs centralize power over municipalities. Spaniards waged a fifty-year war (ca. Showing the indigenous sides are Xicotencatl, a leader of the Spaniards' Tlaxcalan allies, and Aztec emperors Moctezuma II and Cuitlahuac. 4: Spanish Caribbean Colonies. 87-88. "Kurakas and commerce: a chapter in the evolution of Andean society." The Spanish administrative structure that prevailed for the 132 years of Spanish monopoly in the Caribbean was simple. In 1542 Las Casas wrote a damning account of this genocide, A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies. The reorganization of administration has been called "a revolution in government. Cañeque, Alejandro "The Political and Institutional History of Colonial Spanish America", Weber, David J. Spanish universities expanded to train lawyer-bureaucrats (letrados) for administrative positions in Spain and its overseas empire. Spaniards and Indigenous parents produced Mestizo offspring, who were also part of the República de Españoles. Two major factors affected the density of Spanish settlement in the long term. One was by Francisco Hernández de Córdoba in 1517, another by Juan de Grijalva in 1518, which brought promising news of possibilities there. Spaniards had some knowledge of the existing indigenous practices of labor and tribute, so that learning in more detail what tribute particular regions delivered to the Aztec empire prompted the creation of Codex Mendoza, a codification for Spanish use. The diocese was in turn divided into smaller units, the parish, staffed by a parish priest. Viceroys served as the vice-patron of the Catholic Church, including the Inquisition, established in the seats of the viceroyalties (Mexico City and Lima). Indigenous elites could use the noble titles don and doña, were exempt from the head-tax, and could entail their landholdings into cacicazgos. [91][92] The history of the Guaraní has also been the subject of a recent study. Castaño, Victoria Ríos. Many institutions established in Castile found expression in The Indies from the early colonial period. Patterns set in this early period of exploration and colonization were to endure as Spain expanded further, even as the region became less important in the overseas empire after the conquests of Mexico and Peru.[18]. London Macmillan Caribbean, 1997–2012. The United States took occupation of Cuba, the Philippines, and Puerto Rico. Ships and cargoes were registered, and emigrants vetted to prevent migration of anyone not of old Christian heritage, (i.e., with no Jewish or Muslim ancestry), and facilitated the migration of families and women. Muldoon, James. These lands were often quite vast. American-born elite men complained bitterly about the change, since they lost access to power that they had enjoyed for nearly a century.[100]. The exchange did not go one way. Puerto Rico became a self-governing commonwealth in association with the United States. Princeton, NJ: Markus Wiener, 2006. ", Weber, David J. Chocolate (Nahuatl: chocolate) and vanilla were cultivated in Mexico and imported to Europe. [114], As the empire expanded into areas of less dense indigenous populations, the crown created a chain of presidios, military forts or garrisons, that provided Spanish settlers protection from Indian attacks. Hispanic American Historical Review, vol. Upon the success of the expedition, the spoils of war were divvied up in proportion to the amount a participant initially staked, with the leader receiving the largest share. Charles sought to be elected Holy Roman Emperor and was willing to pay whatever it took to achieve that. The first two were in the Alto Perú, present-day Bolivia, at Charcas (present day Sucre, May 25), and La Paz (July 16); and the third in present-day Ecuador at Quito (August 10). There is debate about the impact of ranching on the environment in the colonial era, with sheep herding being called out for its negative impact, while other contest that. During the early Age of Discovery, the diocesan clergy in Spain was poorly educated and considered of a low moral standing, and the Catholic Monarchs were reluctant to allow them to spearhead evangelization. For treatment of the island in its regional context, see Latin America, history of, and West Indies, history of. Zumárraga was reprimanded for his actions as exceeding his authority. “Venezuela: The Colonial Era” in ‘’Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. [16][17] For the conquest era, two names of Spaniards are generally known because they led the conquests of high indigenous civilizations, Hernán Cortés, leader of the expedition that conquered the Aztecs of Central Mexico, and Francisco Pizarro, leader of the conquest of the Inca in Peru. After England defeated the Spanish Armada in 1588, Spain’s domination of the West Indies ceased, and the Spanish concentrated their Caribbean settlements in the Greater Antilles, which comprises Cuba, Puerto Rico, Jamaica (which came under British role in 1655), and Hispaniola. For four hundred years cannon power ruled the islands, guarding prized colonial … In the Americas, the first encomiendas were handed out by Christopher Columbus in the Caribbean. The last Inca stronghold was conquered by the Spanish in 1572. Other countries that held possession of various islands at different times were Portugal, Sweden, and Denmark. He became deeply indebted to the German Welser and Fugger banking families. Start studying Caribbean: Ch. Creole people are ethnic groups which originated during the colonial era from colonialism mainly between West Africans as well as some other people born in the colonies, such as Europeans and sometimes South Asian and Native American peoples; this process is known as creolisation.Creole peoples vary from different race. With his second voyage of 1493 permanent European occupation of the Caribbean began, with enormous consequences for the peoples and ecology of the region. An archaeological project analyzes informal commerce in the colonial Caribbean by Universitat Pompeu Fabra - Barcelona Excavations on the island of Klein Bonaire. [139] Only the most valuable low bulk products would be exported. In Peru, silver was found in a single silver mountain, the Cerro Rico de Potosí, still producing silver in the 21st century. Maya society under colonial rule: The collective enterprise of survival. Includes contributions by Alfredo Castillero-Calvo, Franklin W. Knight, Francisco Moscoso, Frank Moya Pons, Jalil Sued-Badillo, and Enriqueta Vila Vilar. Most agriculture and ranching supplied local needs, since transportation was difficult, slow, and expensive. The utter devastation caused by the white man was literally incredible, and not until the population figures are examined does the extent of the havoc become evident. [132][133][134] In Mexico, the labor force had to be lured from elsewhere in the colony, and was not based on traditional systems of rotary labor. The Council of the diocesan clergy over the religious orders had their own regulations... Small labor force to draw the boundaries for dioceses and parishes power over municipalities were most lengths! 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