All figure content in this area was uploaded by Jan A. Wium, Mass and Density of Materials: Civil Engineering Students’ Knowledge and Perceptions.pdf, All content in this area was uploaded by Jan A. Wium on Mar 08, 2016, Mass and Density of Materials: Civil Engineering Students’ Knowledge and Perce, Peer-review under responsibility of AHFE Conference, Available online at www.sciencedirect.com, 6th International Conference on Applied Huma, The construction industry in South Africa, associated with disease, the direct and indir, the mass and density of materials and construction ergonomics. Findings include: knowledge relative to the mass and density of materials is limited, and students appreciate that the mass and density of materials impacts on construction ergonomics. Density (Kg/m 3) Density (lb/ft 3) 1: WATER: 1000: 62.43: Wood (various types) 2: Balsa: 170: 10.6: 3: Bamboo: 300 – 400: 18.7 – 25: 4: Pine: 370 – 530: 23 – 33: 5: Cedar: 380: 23.7: 6: Aspen: 420: 26.2: 7: Willow wood: 420: 26.2: 8: African mahogany: 495 – 850: 31 – 53: 9: Honduras mahogany: 545: 34: 10: American red wood: 450: 28: 11: European red wood: 510: 31.8: 12: … COMMON MATERIALS Material Density (kg/m3) Material Density (kg/m3) Air 1.29 Iron, cast 7209 Aluminium 2691 Kerosene 817 Asphalt 1506 Lead 11342 Brass 8394 Limestone 2739 Brick, common 1794 Manganese ore 3204 Bronze 8715 Marble 2.56 Cement, Portland 1506 Mortar, rubble 2483 Bulk density. 2-12, In the present time, there is the presence of defects in building as a result of low-quality control during the construction, lack of maintenance and an unfavorable change in the weather condition. As illustrated in Figure 1 - 4, there is a clear correlation between material density and thermal conductivity. [8] J.J. Smallwood, Ergonomics in construction, ergonomicsSA, 9(1), pp. This is notable as, literature and for that matter, reality. The purpose of the paper is to present the results of a study conducted among civil engineering students in a South African university, the objectives being to determine their knowledge and perceptions relative to the mass and density of materials and construction ergonomics. The highest difference is relative to a Double Roman concrete roof tile, ithin 10% range of the actual mass / density is 1, is a lesser known material, which is also handled and, and mean mass / density response, percentage difference, and summary of resp, ) indicates the rating is between limited to below average / below averag, liberation when required to record the mass and density of, Respondents’ rating of their knowledge of, Limited………………………..…..............Extensive, terms of percentage responses to a five poi, e ranging between 1.00 and 5.00. Disposal of such material requires large surfaces and it is rather unfavourable in economical terms. Many injuries are musculoskeletal related in the form of sprains and strains arising from the handling of materials, which process is managed by, inter alia, civil engineers. (C) 2013 American Society of Civil Engineers, Mass and Density of Materials: Knowledge and Perceptions. dm���zz� g��#yw�7)Z�8����1�?��P0��LjB��@D3D��"b�5�����8`��ELr�T��$��`�(�H� The level of occupational health and safety in the construction Industry of Uganda. The construction material mainly reinforced concrete is being used extensively for various types of construction projects. Occupational Health & Safety Act: No. M. Behm, An Analysis of Construction Accidents from a Design Perspective, The Center to Protect Workers' Rights, Silver Spring, 2006. The lowest response was relative to Double Roman concrete roof tile, namely 91.8%. Summary of mass and density of materials responses. The construction materials that are included in the database are presented in Table 1. Prior to the promulgation of the, lay down important requirements with respect to clients and designers. Density is defined as the mass per unit volume. Most are from BOCA or ASAE tables. Table 3. A list of sources from which the data have been prepared is given below. Densities of Metals and Elements Table. It is essential to mai0ntain quality in terms of material quality, mixture with their desire specification, workmanship etc. 2006, D:\4.6.pdf, 2006. 1744 0 obj <> endobj some potential to near major / near major potential. However, these materials are not widely accepted alternatives in North America because they are included only in select building codes in North America and around the world. Each structure has its own service life, and inside this service life, it should stand solidly on its, The building industry accounts for up to 40% of the earth's energy usage from material extraction through building operation; housing constitutes roughly 30% of energy use in North America. of materials relative to construction ergonomics. Sheet 500. The following constitute the sali, the mass and density of materials is limited; s, ergonomics; students rate their knowledge of, appreciate the potential of the considerati, students are precluded from conducting optimum, © 2015 The Authors. Findings include: knowledge relative to the mass and density of materials is limited, and students appreciate that the mass and density of materials impacts on construction ergonomics. An Analysis of Construction Accidents from a Design Perspective. By knowing cement unit weight 1440 Kg / m 3.We can easily calculate the number of bags by multiplying the volume by unit weight. Always double check the values with other sources before important calculations. 14918. Spon Press: Oxon, 2005. Mechanical properties 3. ergonomics is addressed in such programmes. Sustainable construction materials that have low embodied energy include earthen construction and straw bale construction. Apart from metals and ceramics, most of the building materials have a certain degree of porosity. Related Resources: materials. 14918. These properties of building materials are responsible for its quality and capacity and helps to decide applications of these material. Selection of surfacing materials depends on availability of materials, their cost, and road use (weight and amount of traffic). © 2008-2020 ResearchGate GmbH. Conclusions include that: students lack knowledge and awareness relative to the mass and density of materials; students are precluded from conducting optimum design hazard identification and risk assessments, and Civil Engineering education must be reviewed in terms of addressing / referring to construction health and safety, and ergonomics in other subjects. Local codes should be consulted for live load requirements. Some of the most important properties of building materials are their strength, weight, durability, and cost. Extent to which the mass and density of materials impacts on ergonomics. ... –density –specific gravity –porosity –permeability –surface energy Published by Elsevier B.V, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/, n Factors and Ergonomics (AHFE 2015) and the, Department of Construction Management, Nelson Mandela Metropolita, Department of Civil Engineering, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland, 7602, and worldwide generates a disproportionate, contributes to the cumulative cost of construction. The ‘always’ (62.5%) response is notable. MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION . Owners and consumers are looking for more efficient building systems that would decrease this use of energy. review under responsibility of AHFE Conference. For a material to be considered as building material, it should have required engineering properties suitable for construction works. ules comprehensive requirements. Therefore, it is advisable to monitor it periodically by taking a professional opinion. Design practices should include a category mass and density of materials in their practice libraries. J.J. Smallwood, Ergonomics in construction: South African perspectives, In: Proceedings of CIB W107 Construction in Developing (3.83) indicates the appreciation to be between some, third of all construction industry accidents repo, il Engineering included, should optimise the lev, le of the mass and density of materials, including, e South African Institution of Civil Engineers (SA, gonomics practice notes, and promote continuing professional development, : H Lingard and S Rowlinson (eds. Crushed aggregate is the most common improved surfacing material. FOP for AASHTO for Moisture-Density Relations of Soils Using a 10 lb (4.54 kg) Rammer and an 18 in (457 mm) Drop. A collapsed mechanism has increased and today?s Structures are getting collapsed before their service life. 37305, Pretoria, 2014. Weight of manufactured products should … Several factors need to be considered when choosing the materials for a construction job, including: 1. A Case Study of Existing Institutional Building for Assessment and Repair, Sustainable Earthen and Straw Bale Construction in North American Buildings: Codes and Practice, Green Concrete made with RCA and FRP Scrap Aggregate: Fresh and Hardened Properties. Density of Some Common Building Materials: These values for density of some common building materials were collected from sites across the Internet and are generally in agreement with multiple sites. A hard natural material that has been used for interiors and exteriors for thousands of years. Wood. The structures become older, we find in them certain degradation or deterioration with resultant distress manifested in the form of cracking, spalling, dampness, corrosion etc. Safety Act, 1993 construction Regulations 2014 and transmit heat lower compressive strength than the concrete... 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