The spread, establishment and impacts of the spiny water flea, Bythotrephes longimanus, in temperate North America: a synopsis of the special issue. The flea population grows quickly and is difficult to control, partly because their barb-like spines make them resistant to predators. Google Scholar, Panov VE, Rodionova NV, Bolshagin PV, Bychek EA (2007) Invasion biology of Ponto-Caspian onychopod cladocerans (Crustacea: Cladocera: Onychopoda). Spiny water fleas and their eggs are easily transported in the standing water of boats and bait buckets. The spiny water flea's dense populations from constant reproduction and generalistic predation of zooplankton during the summer result in changes of zooplankton species richness and composition following the establishment of this invader. Biol Invasions (this issue), Hovius J, Beisner B, McCanmn KS (2006) Epilimnetic rotifer community responses to Bythotrephes longimanus invasion in Canadian shield lakes. The spiny water flea (Bythotrephes longimanus) is an invasive zooplankton that has been spreading into Minnesota’s inland lakes. Invaded Territory: The water fleas spread to every Great Lake by 1987. Bait buckets and live wells can also host spiny water fleas, making it more important than ever to properly clean boats and trailers, drain live wells, and dispose of live bait properly, before leaving or entering a boat landing. Freshw Biol 46:241–251, Evans MS (1988) Bythotrephes cederstrœmi: its new appearance in Lake Michigan. "It’s a nuisance if you’re a fishermen out in the Great Lakes," said Tim Campbell, UW Sea Grant Program invasive species specialist. Inside a cramped lab in the Blue Heron’s forecastle, Megan Corum, one of Branstrator’s grad students, used a microscope hooked to a widescreen monitor to show me a few of these creatures, captured in a drop of Lake Superior water. Spiny water fleas often spread through recreational boating and are about the width of a pinky finger. By 2014, spiny waterflea had also spread to Stewarts Bridge Reservoir, Peck Lake, Sacandaga Lake, Lake George, and the Glens Falls Feeder Canal. Ecology 88:402–412, PubMed  Biol Invasions 8:1367–1379, Brown M, Branstrator D (2011) Patterns in the abundance, phenology and hatching of the resting egg stage of the invasive zooplankton Bythotrephes longimanus. It was confirmed in Lake Ontario and Lake Erie in 1985, Lake Michigan in … Spiny water flea. By 1987 it had reached Lake Superior. The Task Force’s Spread Prevention Recommendations include: 1. Spiny Water Flea & Sea Lamprey. Native to Eurasia, the spiny water flea arrived in the Great Lakes in ballast water in the 1980s, and is spreading to other water bodies. Earthscan, London, Strecker AL, Arnott SE (2008) Invasive predator, Bythotrephes, has varied effects on ecosystem function in freshwater lakes. Since 2008, all ships entering the St. Lawrence River from the Atlantic have been required to flush their ballast-water tanks with salt water, which kills any freshwater creatures that might have hitched a ride. inter-water transport vector and its distribution advancing northward in the Adirondack Park, eliminating and reducing the spread of spiny water flea is extremely important because there are no widely used and effective methods for control and management once SWF is established (Weisz & Yan, 2010). Two invasive species, the sea lamprey and the spiny water flea, have already established a presence in Isle Royale waters. PubMed Google Scholar. They do it through a process known as parthenogenesis or asexual reproduction, which means that they are capable of reproducing without mating. A native of Eurasia, the flea feeds on crustaceans and other zooplankton, putting the invader in direct competition with native fish and other aquatic organisms. cederstroemi. Limnol Oceanogr 51:1004–1012, Hovius JT, Beisner BE, McCann KS, Yan ND (2007) Indirect food web effects of Bythotrephes invasion: responses by the rotifer Conochilus in Harp Lake, Canada. However, the water flea has spread in recent years to many areas throughout Europe, including some ports and inland lakes outside its natural range. 2020 National Geographic Partners, LLC. Aquat Sci 62:142–153, Meinesz A (1999) Killer algae: the true tale of a biological invasion. … Conserv Biol 7:686–700, Grigorovich IA, Pashkova OV, Gromoca YF, van Overdijk CDA (1998) Bythotrephes longimanus in the commonwealth of independent states: variability, distribution and ecology. longimanus. Discovery of the spiny water flea in Lake George has heightened worries that the invasive species will eventually move into Lake Champlain. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 49:422–426, Yan ND, Blukacz A, Sprules WG, Kindy PK, Hackett D, Girard R, Clark BJ (2001) Changes in the zooplankton and the phenology of the spiny water flea, Bythotrephes, following its invasion of Harp Lake, Ontario, Canada. After just a few days there are almost no water fleas in sight other than a few amongst the gravel. longimanus. But Daphnia are declining in Lake Superior and nearly every other body of water in the Great Lakes region. Cambridge University Press, p 313, Nilsson NA (1979) Food and habitat of the fish community of the offshore region of lake Vanern, Sweden. Biol Invasions (this issue), Yurista PM (1999) A model for temperature correction of size-dependent respiration in Bythotrephes cederstrœmi and Daphnia middendorfianna. And in 2017, a United Nations regulation mandated that all new ships be equipped with ballast-water treatment systems. Spiny water fleas produce rapidly through parthenogenesis, commonly known as asexual reproduction, which means that no males are required and populations can explode in number. Given its rapid spread in the Great Lakes basin in North America, and the decreases in pelagic biodiversity that have ensued, the last decade has witnessed a surge of research on Bythotrephes. We thank the NSERC Canadian Aquatic Invading Species Network and the Ontario Ministry of the Environment for their support of Bythotrephes research in Canada, and for funding the 2009 Bythotrephes workshop at Dorset, Ontario, at which the majority of the authors of this special issue compared their Bythotrephes research, and at which the idea for this special issue blossomed. Furthermore, fishing lines and down-riggers used in infested lakes can become coated with both eggs and adults which can be transported if the gear is not cleaned before it is used in a different lake. Freshw Biol 37:409–425, Yan ND, Dunlop W, Pawson TW, Mackay LE (1992) Bythotrephes ... “Research also showed that even after passing through the guts of fish, spiny water flea eggs were intact and viable. Through its glassy shell we could see its delicate, reddish-brown, tubular heart, gently quivering. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 61:2111–2125, Article  “Think about it,” said MacIsaac. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, p 360, Mills EL, O’Gorman R, Degisi J, Heberger RF, House RA (1992) Food of the alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) in Lake Ontario before and after the establishment of Bythotrephes “We don’t want rhinos to go extinct. Spiny waterflea introductions result in an average 30 to 40 per cent decline in native populations of zooplankton. This tank didn't have much breeding going on in it, and I hadn't had new babies for about three months. cederstrœmi (Schœdler) in Muskoka lakes: first records of the European invader in inland lakes in Canada. Department of Biology, York University, Toronto, ON, M3J 1P3, Canada, Dorset Environmental Science Centre, Dorset, ON, P0A 1E0, Canada, Department of Biology, McGill University, Montreal, QC, H3A 1B1, Canada, Centre for Mathematical Biology Department of Mathematical and Statistical Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2G1, Canada, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2G1, Canada, Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Michigan State University, 13 Natural Resources Building, East Lansing, MI, 48824-1222, USA, You can also search for this author in “Lake Michigan now almost looks like open Caribbean water,” said Hugh MacIsaac, an invasive species biologist from the University of Windsor in Ontario. Photo from Minnesota Department of Natural Resources Photo from Minnesota Department of Natural Resources A new study released by the U.S. Biol Invasion (this issue), Weisz EJ, Yan ND (2010) Relative value of limnological, geographic and human use variables as predictors of the presence of Bythotrephes longimanus in Canadian shield lakes. Arch Hydrobiol 149:1–21, Manca M, Ramoni C, Comollie P (2000) The decline of Daphnia hyalina galeata in Lago Maggiore: a comparison of the population dynamics before and after oligotrophication. The only hope for excluding spiny water flea from Quabbin is personal vigilance on the part of each and every visiting boater and angler: this means everyone who fishes at Quabbin! There were no spiny water fleas in view, but Corum pointed out Daphnia, with their bristly antennae and black compound eyes. Resources. Limnol Oceanogr 56:179–192, Therriault TW, Grigorovich IA, Cristescu ME, Ketelaars HAM, Viljanen M, Heath DD, MacIsaac HJ (2002) Taxonomic resolution of the genus Bythotrephes Leydig, using molecular markers and a re-evaluation of its global distribution, with notes on factors affecting dispersal, establishment and abundance. Limnol Oceanogr 39:1503–1516, Berg DJ, Garton DW, MacIsaac HJ, Panov VE, Telesh IV (2002) Changes in genetic structure of North American Bythotrephes populations following invasion from Lake Ladoga, Russia. “If we have 150 lakes colonized by spiny water fleas—it might be a lot more than that—multiplied by three species per lake, that’s 450 populations of zooplankton that have been exterminated by one invader.”, Photograph by Minnesota Aquatic Invasive Species Research Center. Lines, reels, livewells and bait buckets pose a risk of spreading spiny water flea from one lake to the next if not properly cleaned and dried. By keeping algae in check, Daphnia help keep the system in balance. Bret, introduce us to the spiny water flea. Bret Shaw: Spiny water fleas came to the United States in the 1980s in the bilge water from freight ships coming over from Europe and within a decade or two had spread throughout all of the Great Lakes and now they are moving into the inland lakes. Nature 332:537–538, Lehman JT, Caceres CE (1993) Food-web responses to species invasion by a predatory invertebrate: Bythotrephes in Lake Michigan. Actually, the spiny water flea affects climate change by increasing global warming and warming temperatures in the Great Lakes. Part of Springer Nature. J Plank Res 21:721–734. Spiny water fleas were first found in North America in 1982 in Lake Ontario. SWF were introduced to the great lakes via ship ballast water from Europe in the 1980s. The fleas carry both male and female reproductive organs. The Spiny Water Flea was first introduced to North American waters from the ballast tanks from merchant ships traveling into our waters from Europe and Asia. Something else that I am sure you’ll find fascinating is how spiny water fleas reproduce. cederstroemi, in lakes Erie and Huron. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 65:1512–1522, Wang L, Jackson DA (2011) Modeling the establishment of invasive species: habitat and biotic interactions influencing the establishment of Bythotrephes There are several steps that can be taken to minimize the spread of the spiny water flea, including: Maintaining good boat cleanliness. Spiny waterfleas spread by All rights reserved. Because they are so small and translucent, they are virtually invisible. The fleas spread from lake to lake by stacking to fishing lines, anchor ropes, and boats. Their numbers have been decimated by a fierce invasive predator, the spiny water flea. MAL gratefully acknowledges a Canada Research Chair, and BL, NDY and MAL acknowledge NSERC Discovery Grants for support. What that means for the future of the Great Lakes remains unclear. This can lead to less food that has lower nutritional value for small native fish and the young of … Spiny water flea introductions result in an average 30 to 40 percent decline in native populations of zooplankton. Google Scholar, Berg DJ, Garton DW (1994) Genetic differentiation in North American and European populations of the cladoceran Bythotrephes. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 65:862–877, Young JD, Strecker AL, Yan ND (2011) Increased abundance of the non-indigenous zooplanktivore, Bythotrephes longimanus, is strongly correlated with greater spring prey availability in Canadian shield lakes. Spiny waterflea can often be seen by the naked eye, and will readily accumulate in a blob-like structure on fishing line and downrigger cables dragged through infested water. Meet the Spiny Water Flea. Recent reports of spiny water fleas becoming snagged on fishing gear used on Lake Champlain have prompted officials from the Vermont Fish & Wildlife Department and the Lake Champlain Basin Program to urge anglers and boaters to take appropriate steps to prevent the spread of this and other harmful aquatic invasive species. An initial analysis of data from last summer’s field work shows that during the daytime, fishing lines gather a lot of spiny water flea. How do spiny waterflea stick to different types of angling gear? They do it through a process known as parthenogenesis or asexual reproduction, which means that they are capable of reproducing without mating. Most recently, the invasion of spiny water flea was confirmed in Trout Lake, near Boulder Junction, WI, and the possibility of it spreading to other lakes can mean significant trouble for the health of Wisconsin lakes. Spiny and fishhook waterfleas are small aquatic predators native to Eurasia. People spread spiny waterfleas primarily through the movement of water-related equipment. Since then they have spread throughout the Great Lakes and a number of inland water bodies. Hydrobiol 380:179–193, Strecker AL (In press) An overview of invasive freshwater cladocerans: Bythotrephes longimanus as a case study. Fish don’t eat them: The flea’s barbed tail gets caught in the throats of fish, so fish spit them out. The spiny water flea (Bythotrephes cederstroemi) is not an insect but a crustacean with a long, barbed trail.They are small and transparent, making it difficult to see them unless they occur in very large numbers. He says that northern waters are more ideal for them to hide from predators during the day and to feed at night. Researchers think that Great Lakes fishing equipment can spread the fleas between different lakes and streams, and stricter cleaning regulations may help. Google Scholar, Claudi R, Mackie GL (1993) Practical manual for zebra mussel monitoring and control. They can survive in water contained in bait buckets, live wells, bilge areas, ballast tanks and other water-containing devices. Blackwell, Oxford, p 304, MacIsaac HJ, Ketelaars HAM, Grigorovich IA, Ramcharan CW, Yan ND (2000) Modeling Bythotrephes These long-established predators latch onto trout with their toothy, disc-shaped mouths and drain the trout’s bodily fluids. The fishy odor came from planktonic crustaceans just a few millimeters long, a primary food source for all the fish in the lake. Spiny water flea populations can become so dense that they even plague fishermen, clogging lines with gooey blobs that prevent the line from passing through the eyelets on a fishing rod. longimanus invasions in the great lakes basin based on its European distribution. Visitors to the park can help keep our inland lakes free of spiny water flea by following a few simple procedures. Ballast water is water taken on or discharged by ships for stability, often resulting in organisms getting caught up in the ballasts and inadvertently moved from one region to another. An invasive species, the spiny water flea, was recently found in a New York lake. Invasive SpeciesSPinyWater FleaIan StaudacherSeth GodinWhat is the Spiny Water Flea? Spiny water flea populations can become so dense that they even plague fishermen, clogging lines with gooey blobs that prevent the line from passing through the eyelets on a fishing rod. The spread, establishment and impacts of the spiny water flea, Bythotrephes longimanus, in temperate North America: a synopsis of the special issue. © 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. Unlike Daphnia and other native grazers, the mussels strain nearly everything from the water column. But what happens if we start losing our native species of plankton? Because the water flea is so small, it is probably in the Madison lakes to stay. What can you do to keep Spiny Water Flea out of Quabbin Reservoir? Ecol Lett 5:481–485, Yan ND, Somers KM, Girard RE, Paterson A, Keller B, Ramcharan C, Rusak J, Ingram R, Morgan G, Gunn JM (2008) Long-term changes in crustacean zooplankton communities of Dorset, Ontario lakes: the probable interactive effects of changes in pH, TP, dissolved organic carbon, and predators. Ecosphere 2(3):art30. The results have been dramatic. Lewis, London, pp 227, Colautti RI, Manca M, Viljanen M, Ketelaars HAM, Burgi HR, MacIsaac HJ, Heath DH (2005) Invasion genetics of the Eurasian spiny waterflea: evidence for bottlenecks and gene flow using microsatellites. The spiny water flea is planktivorous and has caused major changes in zooplankton community structure. How do I identify SWF? “Some of the main prey species for salmon are growing at half the rate they did before mussels,” said Edward Rutherford, a fishery biologist at the Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory in Ann Arbor, Michigan. The spiny water flea is presently found only in Lake Superior. A lot about the ecology of spiny water flea is not yet well understood; however, concern is high that this invasive species may cause major problems to lake ecosystems. These water fleas eat zooplankton, a food also consumed by native fishes. Once species like zebra mussels, spiny water fleas, and sea lamprey enter an area, they cause large scale changes in the ecosystem. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 48:1546–1557, Johnson PTJ, Olden JD, Vander Zanden MJ (2008) Dam invaders: impoundments facilitate biological invasions into freshwaters. Known Spiny Water Flea Locations and Habitat. Aquatic invasive species organizations are working to educate boaters and decrease the spread. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 49:2009–2019, Muirhead JR, MacIsaac HJ (2005) Development of inland lakes as hubs in an invasion network. Correspondence to Can J Fish Aquat Sci 58:2341–2350, Yan ND, Girard R, Boudreau S (2002) An introduced predator (Bythotrephes) reduces zooplankton species richness. Something else that I am sure you’ll find fascinating is how spiny water fleas reproduce. The spiny water flea was likely introduced from ballast water; however, its current spread is due to recreational boating, ballast water transfer, and water currents. Get the whole story inside. […] This invasive species outcompetes native species for food, which can have cascading impacts to the entire food web.
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