[72] The Palmyrene royalty used Eastern titles such as king of kings, which had no relevance in Roman politics, while the conquests were in the interest of Palmyrene commerce. in the early second millennium BC. Palmyra changed hands on a number of o 2012 - Zenobia (240 – c. 274) was a 3rd-century Queen of the Palmyrene Empire in Roman Syria. Olshausen, E., “The ‘Palmyrene Empire’ (AD 250–272)”, in: Brill’s New Pauly Supplements I - Volume 3 : Historical Atlas of the Ancient World, English edition by Christine Salazar (2010). | Summary generator | Copyright © Lakhasly.com 2020 [45], Entering Issus and heading to Antioch, Aurelian defeated Zenobia in the Battle of Immae. [23] Under the regency of Zenobia,[23][24] Vaballathus was kept in the shadow while his mother assumed actual rule and consolidated her power. Belligerents Roman Empire Palmyra Blemmyes Commanders and leaders Tenagino Probus ZabdasZenobiaTimagenesStrength 50,000 70,000Casualties and losses Heavy Unknown The Palmyrene invasion of Egypt occurred in summer12 or October3 of 270 AD when the forces of Queen Zenobia of Palmyra, led by her general Zabdas and aided by an Egyptian general named Timagenes, invaded and … The Palmyrene Empire was ruled by Queen Zenobia for her infant son Vaballathus. She led a famous revolt against the Roman Empire and then expanded the empire, conquering Egypt and expelling the Roman prefect. By the time of the Muslim conquests, a few Arab tribes were living in Palmyra. Her Roman name was Julia Aurelia Zenobia and in Greek, she is known as Zēnobía or Septimia Zenobia, having added Septimia after marrying Septimius Odaenathus. The Palmyrene alphabet was a historical Semitic alphabet used to write Palmyrene Aramaic.It was used between 100 BCE and 300 CE in Palmyra in the Syrian desert. Named after its capital and largest city, Palmyra, it encompassed the Roman provinces of Syria Palaestina, Arabia Petraea, and Egypt, as well as large parts of Asia Minor. Palmyrene is a Unicode block containing characters for the historical Palmyrene alphabet used to write the local Palmyrene dialect of Aramaic. [72] Finally, it was only in the last regnal year of Zenobia and Vaballathus that the Roman imperial rank was claimed. A year later the Palmyrenes rebelled, which led Aurelian to destroy Palmyra. Summarize tool | a reduced size. [37] Afterward, in 271, Zabbai started the operations in Asia Minor, and was joined by Zabdas in the spring of that year. [67] Irfan Shahîd considered Zenobia's revolt a pan-Arab movement that was a forerunner of the Arab expansion of the Caliphates;[67] an opinion shared by Franz Altheim,[67] and an almost universal view amongst Arab and Syrian scholars such as Philip Khuri Hitti. combined eastern and western traditions. الخامس لليلا... الجهاز التنفسي هو جهاز يمد خلايا جسم الإنسان بالأكسجين اللازم للقيام بأنشطتها ، ويتخلص من ثاني أكسيد... تواجدت الحرف التراثية منذ آلاف السنين، و استمرت عبر العصور، و لكنها لآن متواجدة بقلة. Vabalathus is the Latinized form of his name in the Arabic language, Wahb Allat or gift of the Goddess. [67] Andreas Alföldi viewed the rebellion as a completely native ethnic opposition against Rome. [6] Finally, Shapur I of Persia inflicted a disastrous defeat upon the Romans at the Battle of Edessa in 260,[7] capturing the Roman emperor Valerian and soon, Quietus and Macrianus rebelled against Valerian's son Gallienus and usurped the imperial power in Syria. [64][65], Aurelian spared Antiochus,[65] but razed Palmyra. The Palmyrene Empire Edit. The first decisive evidence for the use of this title for Odaenathus is an inscription dated to 271, posthumously describing Odaenathus as king of kings. FP152980s --texts. [41] However, toward the end of 271, Vaballathus took the title of Augustus (emperor) along with his mother. Automatic summarization That's it. With the foundation of the Sasanian empire of Iran in 224 A.D., Palmyra lost control over the trade routes, but the head of a prominent Arabian family who was an ally of the Roman empire, Septimius Odaenathus, led two campaigns against the Sasanians and drove them out of Syria. [44] The fall of Tyana lent itself to a legend; Aurelian to that point had destroyed every city that resisted him, but he spared Tyana after having a vision of the great philosopher Apollonius of Tyana, whom he respected greatly, in a dream. No evidence exists for Roman units serving in the ranks of Odaenathus; whether Roman soldiers fought under Odaenathus or not is a matter of speculation. [46] Whatever the reason for his clemency, Aurelian's sparing of Tyana paid off; many more cities submitted to him upon seeing that the emperor would not exact revenge upon them. Would you like Wikipedia to always look as professional and up-to-date? They didn't last long, however, and … This elevated Palmyra from a subordinate city to a de facto independent kingdom allied to Rome. The Palmyrene Empire was a short-lived splinter state of the Roman Empire resulting from the Crisis of the Third Century.Named after its capital and largest city, Palmyra, it encompassed the Roman provinces of Syria Palaestina, Arabia Petraea, and Egypt, as well as large parts of Asia Minor.. Palmyra (/ˌpælˈmaɪrə/; Arabic: مرُدَ ْت Tadmur; Palmyrene: Tadmor) is an ancient Semitic city in present-day Homs Governorate, Syria. 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