For other uses, see, Assertion of royal control in the early Caribbean, Civil administrative districts, provinces, Frontier institutions – presidio and mission, Early economy of indigenous tribute and labor. [61] To carry out the expedition (entrada), which entailed exploration, conquest, and initial settlement of the territory, the king, as sovereign, and the appointed leader of an expedition (adelantado) agreed to an itemized contract (capitulación), with the specifics of the conditions of the expedition in a particular territory. Two major factors affected the density of Spanish settlement in the long term. Many institutions established in Castile found expression in The Indies from the early colonial period. Many parts of the Americas soon came to be under the rule of Europeans, resulting in large migrations, exchange of … The expansion of Spain’s territory took place under the Catholic Monarchs Isabella of Castile, Queen of Castile and her husband King Ferdinand, King of Aragon, whose marriage marked the beginning of Spanish power beyond the Iberian peninsula. Cities were governed on the same pattern as in Spain and in the Indies the city was the framework of Spanish life. [46] The capitals of Mexico and Peru, Mexico City and Lima came to have large concentrations of Spanish settlers and became the hubs of royal and ecclesiastical administration, large commercial enterprises and skilled artisans, and centers of culture. Spanish settlers found relatively dense populations of indigenous peoples, who were agriculturalists living in villages ruled by leaders not part of a larger integrated political system. Many historians make a similar argument for former Spanish territories along the Gulf Coast regions of present-day Mexico and the United States. Spanish America does not break out specific Caribbean destinations. After England defeated the Spanish Armada in 1588, Spain’s domination of the West Indies ceased, and the Spanish concentrated their Caribbean settlements in the Greater Antilles, which comprises Cuba, Puerto Rico, Jamaica (which came under British role in 1655), and Hispaniola. The veedor, or overseer, position quickly disappeared in most jurisdictions, subsumed into the position of factor. Includes a bibliographical guide for each chapter in lieu of footnotes; appropriate for undergraduates. [105] In areas of previous indigenous empires with settled populations, the crown also melded existing indigenous rule into a Spanish pattern, with the establishment of cabildos and the participation of indigenous elites as officials holding Spanish titles. Castaño, Victoria Ríos. [109] In order to control the municipal life, the Crown ordered the appointment of corregidores and alcaldes mayores to exert greater political control and judicial functions in minor districts. The vast majority of the decline happened after the Spanish period, during the Mexican and US periods of Californian history (1821–1910), with the most dramatic collapse (200,000 to 25,000) occurring in the US period (1846–1910).[128][129][130]. Early British settlements include Bermuda (1612), Saint Kitts (1623), and Barbados (1627). Pedro de Mendoza and Domingo Martínez de Irala, who led the original expedition, went inland and founded Asunción, Paraguay, which became the Spaniards' base. Includes contributions by Alfredo Castillero-Calvo, Franklin W. Knight, Francisco Moscoso, Frank Moya Pons, Jalil Sued-Badillo, and Enriqueta Vila Vilar. Spanish Caribbean colonies play an important part within the broader narrative, and are well represented in six chapters devoted to the colonial period. There is debate about the impact of ranching on the environment in the colonial era, with sheep herding being called out for its negative impact, while other contest that. The Spanish Caribbean: 1821-1898: The loss of Santo Domingo in 1821 is a particular blow to Spanish pride, since the island of Hispaniola was the first of Columbus' discoveries to be colonized. Muldoon, James. Thererafter, when the limited supply of gold is exhausted, the Spanish West Indies survive as part of the broader economy of Spanish America. They also imported cane sugar, which was a high-value crop in early Spanish America. Mercury was a monopoly of the crown. 1500–1850), Timeline of imperialism § Colonization of North America, "Victimario Histórico Militar Capítulo IX De las 16 mayores Guerras y Genocidios del siglo XVI de 60.000 a 3.000.000 de muertos", "DEATH BY GOVERNMENT Chapter 3 Pre-Twentieth Century Democide", Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture 1996, "Su Majestad quiere gobernar: la Administración española en Indias durante los siglos XVI y XVII", "Las instituciones políticas en la región de Cuyo", "El gobierno y la imagen de la Monarquía Hispánica en los viajeros de los siglos XVI y XVII. Thererafter, when the limited supply of gold is exhausted, the Spanish West Indies survive as part of the broader economy of Spanish America. The Plan of Iguala was part of the peace treaty to establish a constitutional foundation for an independent Mexico. In 1542 Las Casas wrote a damning account of this genocide, A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies. Hernán Cortés requested Franciscan and Dominican friars be sent to New Spain immediately after the conquest of Tenochtitlan to begin evangelization. Neither was effective in its purpose. del Castillo Mathieu, Nicolás. The ideas from the French and the American Revolution influenced the efforts. The Spanish founded San Sebastián de Uraba in 1509 but abandoned it within the year. They founded the towns of Coro and Maracaibo. In the Americas, the first encomiendas were handed out by Christopher Columbus in the Caribbean. The first two were in the Alto Perú, present-day Bolivia, at Charcas (present day Sucre, May 25), and La Paz (July 16); and the third in present-day Ecuador at Quito (August 10). The crown aimed to prevent the formation of an aristocracy in the Indies not under crown control. Hold on the mainland of colonies, except Cuba and Puerto Rico and. The United States establishing orchards of oranges, lemons, and authorized Columbus ’ s voyage sailing West explores this... 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