Since 1935 urban development has claimed as much of the Swiss landscape as it did during the previous 2,000 years. Financial problems with the defence budget and ethical considerations prevented the substantial funds from being allocated, and the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty of 1968 was seen as a valid alternative. Being a landlocked country, Switzerland has no navy; however, on lakes bordering neighbouring countries, armed military patrol boats are used. The largest city in Switzerland is a major contemporary art and shopping destination. Modern-day Switzerland was therefore then divided between the kingdoms of Alemannia and Burgundy. [159][160], The government has established an Integration Office under the Department of Foreign Affairs and the Department of Economic Affairs. [59][60] The more mountainous southern half of the country is far more sparsely populated than the northern half. Switzerland is a landlocked mountainous country in South Central Europe, bordered by Austria, France, Germany, Italy, and Liechtenstein. The treaty also allowed Switzerland to increase its territory, with the admission of the cantons of Valais, Neuchâtel and Geneva. The section of the Bernese Alps above the deep glacial Lauterbrunnen valley, containing 72 waterfalls, is well known for the Jungfrau (4,158 m or 13,642 ft) Eiger and Mönch, and the many picturesque valleys in the region. Geneva converted to Protestantism in 1536, just before John Calvin arrived there. [164], On 9 February 2014, Swiss voters narrowly approved by 50.3% a ballot initiative launched by the national conservative Swiss People's Party (SVP/UDC) to restrict immigration, and thus reintroducing a quota system on the influx of foreigners. Archaeologists revealed that she was approximately 40 years old when she died and likely carried out little physical labor when she was alive. There are large lakes found here and the biggest Swiss cities are in this area of the country.[59]. diglossic usage of a language). [257][258], Chocolate has been made in Switzerland since the 18th century but it gained its reputation at the end of the 19th century with the invention of modern techniques such as conching and tempering which enabled its production on a high quality level. [48], Switzerland's trade was blockaded by both the Allies and by the Axis. Switzerland is located in Europe, in GMT+1 time zone (with current time of 04:16 PM, Wednesday). Switzerland is notable for the variety of grapes grown because of the large variations in terroirs, with their specific mixes of soil, air, altitude and light. It extends about 135 miles (220 km) from north to south and 220 miles (350 km) at its widest extent from west to east. It is a collegial body of seven members, elected for a four-year mandate by the Federal Assembly which also exercises oversight over the Council. [34][35][42] Swiss troops still served foreign governments until 1860 when they fought in the Siege of Gaeta. Any 8 cantons together can also call a constitutional referendum on a federal law. One in ten jobs in Switzerland is considered low-paid and roughly 12% of Swiss workers hold such jobs, many of them women and foreigners. It was not until more than one hundred years after these internal wars that, in 1648, under the Peace of Westphalia, European countries recognised Switzerland's independence from the Holy Roman Empire and its neutrality. Restaurant in the Alpine village of Grindelwald, Switzerland. Switzerland (German: Schweiz Karte) is a European nation located at the central part of the continent.Its official name is Swiss Confederation, and it’s a landlocked country bordered by Italy in the south, Germany in the north, France in the west, Liechtenstein and Austria in the east. This urban sprawl does not only affect the plateau but also the Jura and the Alpine foothills[219] and there are growing concerns about land use. Switzerland has existed as a state in its present form since the adoption of the Swiss Federal Constitution in 1848. Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a country situated at the confluence of Western, Central, and Southern Europe. [199][198] The fourth national language, Romansh (0.5%), is a Romance language spoken locally in the southeastern trilingual canton of Grisons, and is designated by Article 4 of the Federal Constitution as a national language along with German, French, and Italian, and in Article 70 as an official language if the authorities communicate with persons who speak Romansh. Switzerland is a founding member of the EFTA, but is not a member of the European Economic Area. Steadily harassed by the Germanic tribes, in 58 BC the Helvetii decided to abandon the Swiss plateau and migrate to western Gallia, but Julius Caesar's armies pursued and defeated them at the Battle of Bibracte, in today's eastern France, forcing the tribe to move back to its original homeland. [114], The World Economic Forum's Global Competitiveness Report currently ranks Switzerland's economy as the most competitive in the world,[115] while ranked by the European Union as Europe's most innovative country. Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire was formally recognized in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. Each canton has its own constitution, and its own parliament, government, police and courts. Thus as of today, no city in Switzerland has the official status either of capital or of Federal City, nevertheless Berne is commonly referred to as "Federal City" (German: Bundesstadt, French: ville fédérale, Italian: città federale). File Type: png, File size: 66962 bytes (65.39 KB), Map Dimensions: 1000px x 841px (256 colors) [93] Switzerland decided not to sign the Nuclear Weapon Ban Treaty. Located in west central Europe, bordered on the north by France and Germany, on the east by Austria and Liechtenstein, on the south by Italy, and on the west and south-west by France, this landlocked alpine country has an area of 41,290 square kilometers (15,942 square mi), making it slightly less than twice the size of New Jersey. While the world reels from the economic downturn caused by the COVID-19, pandemic Panama set a new price record for coffee with international buyers bidding $1, . The most popular alcoholic drink in Switzerland is wine. [25] The name was extended to the area dominated by the canton, and after the Swabian War of 1499 gradually came to be used for the entire Confederation. With an area of 41,285 km², the country is only slightly smaller than the Netherlands or slightly less than twice the size of the US state of New Jersey. For many outsiders, Switzerland also evokes a prosperous if rather staid and unexciting society, an image that is now dated. Though 61% of the population made less than the average income, income inequality is relatively low with a Gini coefficient of 29.7, placing Switzerland among the top 20 countries for income equality. A third of this population (853,000) held Swiss citizenship. Nevertheless, it pursues an active foreign policy and is frequently involved in peace-building processes around the world. GDP per hour worked is the world's 16th highest, at 49.46 international dollars in 2012.[136]. [125][126][127] Apart from agriculture, economic and trade barriers between the European Union and Switzerland are minimal and Switzerland has free trade agreements worldwide. What country has the largest Muslim population? Also a breakthrough was the invention of solid milk chocolate in 1875 by Daniel Peter. Januar 2015): Art. The reform "Army XXI" was adopted by popular vote in 2003, it replaced the previous model "Army 95", reducing the effectives from 400,000 to about 200,000. When war broke out between France and its rivals, Russian and Austrian forces invaded Switzerland. The number of fine-dining establishments is high, particularly in western Switzerland. The Swiss Super League is the nation's professional football club league. Autumn is the driest season, winter receives less precipitation than summer, yet the weather patterns in Switzerland are not in a stable climate system and can be variable from year to year with no strict and predictable periods. This isn’t the only thing that makes this beautiful country unique. [32] The territories of present-day Switzerland became divided into Middle Francia and East Francia until they were reunified under the Holy Roman Empire around 1000 AD. It is located both in the Northern and Eastern Hemispheres of the Earth. Some technologies enabled the exploration of new worlds such as the pressurised balloon of Auguste Piccard and the Bathyscaphe which permitted Jacques Piccard to reach the deepest point of the world's oceans. The vast majority (60%) of the network is operated by the Swiss Federal Railways (SBB CFF FFS). [61], Switzerland lies between latitudes 45° and 48° N, and longitudes 5° and 11° E. It contains three basic topographical areas: the Swiss Alps to the south, the Swiss Plateau or Central Plateau, and the Jura mountains on the west. [71], The Federal Council constitutes the federal government, directs the federal administration and serves as collective Head of State. Switzerland is bordered to the west by France, to the north by Germany, to the east by Austria and Liechtenstein, and to the south by Italy. Switzerland location map, showing the geographical location of Switzerland on the World map. The cultural diversity accounts for a variety of newspapers. Most Swiss live in towns and cities, not in the idyllic rural landscapes that captivated the world through Johanna Spyri’s Heidi (1880–81), the country’s best-known literary work. Switzerland's attitude towards refugees was complicated and controversial; over the course of the war it admitted as many as 300,000 refugees[49] while refusing tens of thousands more,[52] including Jews who were severely persecuted by the Nazis. Folk art is kept alive in organisations all over the country. [222], Switzerland has no official state religion, though most of the cantons (except Geneva and Neuchâtel) recognise official churches, which are either the Roman Catholic Church or the Swiss Reformed Church. [166][167], In December 2016, a political compromise with the European Union was attained effectively canceling quotas on EU citizens but still allowing for favourable treatment of Swiss-based job applicants. These cities are home to several offices of international organisations such as the headquarters of FIFA, the UN's second-largest Office, and the main building of the Bank for International Settlements. Welcome! Ordinary citizens are able to participate at every level of politics and regularly exercise their will in referenda and initiatives, through which Swiss citizens directly make numerous policy decisions at the national and subnational level. [253] Steinstossen is the Swiss variant of stone put, a competition in throwing a heavy stone. Switzerland is bordered to the west by France, to the north by Germany, to the east by Austria and Liechtenstein, and to the south by Italy. [261][262], Coordinates: 46°50′N 8°20′E / 46.833°N 8.333°E / 46.833; 8.333, This article is about the sovereign state. In business and management studies, the University of St. Gallen, (HSG) is ranked 329th in the world according to QS World University Rankings[144] and the International Institute for Management Development (IMD), was ranked first in open programmes worldwide by the Financial Times. Origin of the capital at the 30 biggest Swiss corporations, 2018[105], Switzerland has a stable, prosperous and high-tech economy and enjoys great wealth, being ranked as the wealthiest country in the world per capita in multiple rankings, while at the same time being one the least corrupt countries in the world. Central Switzerland, the Valais, the Ticino, Appenzell Innerrhodes, the Jura, and Fribourg are traditionally Catholic. Geneva and the nearby French department of Ain co-host the world's largest laboratory, CERN,[154] dedicated to particle physics research. [53], During the Cold War, Swiss authorities considered the construction of a Swiss nuclear bomb. [138] The largest university in Switzerland is the University of Zurich with nearly 25,000 students. [221] The weight of the largest metropolitan areas, which are Zürich, Geneva–Lausanne, Basel and Bern tend to increase. [64][66] Nevertheless, according to the 2014 Environmental Performance Index, Switzerland ranks first among 132 nations in safeguarding the environment, due to its high scores on environmental public health, its heavy reliance on renewable sources of energy (hydropower and geothermal energy), and its control of greenhouse gas emissions. With Mexico and the Republic of Korea it forms the Environmental Integrity Group (EIG). Its tallest peak is the Dufourspitze at 15,203 ft (4,634 m) on the Swiss side of the Italian border, one of 10 summits of the Monte Rosa massif. [57] However, the voters rejected the attempts of taking back control of immigration, defeating the motion by a roughly 63%–37% margin. This online map of Switzerland shows holiday resorts, hotels and webcams and will greatly simplify your journey to Switzerland and to your resort. [note 4][13] It is a federal republic composed of 26 cantons, with federal authorities based in Bern. The area occupied by the Helvetii—the namesakes of the later Confoederatio Helvetica—first became part of Rome's Gallia Belgica province and then of its Germania Superior province, while the eastern portion of modern Switzerland was integrated into the Roman province of Raetia. Februar 2014: Initiative "Gegen Masseneinwanderung, EU and Switzerland agree on free movement, Switzerland referendum: Voters reject end to free movement with EU, "Vorlage Nr. It includes country boundaries, major cities, major mountains in shaded relief, ocean depth in blue color gradient, along with many other features. 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