A total of 2,626 books or pamphlets written between 1471 and 1700 in the vernacular addressed female concerns, with over one thousand printed by 1600. Bellarmine puffed the pope as the arbiter mundi, the court of last resort in world affairs. Pole was protected by Mary Tudor. [Pensiero 250], Paruta had been an empiricist: “Although our intellect may be divine from its birth, nevertheless here below it lives among these earthly members and cannot perform its operations without the help of bodily sensation. Serge Huttin, “Histoire des Rose-Croix” (Paris, 1971). A painting by Palma Giovane in the Doge’s palace depicts Doge Loredan and the lion of St. Mark fighting Europa, who rides a bull and carries a shield embossed with the arms of the member states of the league. In 1516, a year before Luther’s Wittenberg theses, Contarini wrote De Officio Episcopi, a treatise of church reform for his friend Lippomanno, who was about to become a bishop. Then there were the zelanti, like Caraffa, who tended towards militant and inquisitorial methods, and who came into conflict with Spirituali like Pole and Morone, accusing them of heresy. The Council of Trent. Morone was jailed in 1557, and Pole was instructed to return to Rome to face a trial for heresy on account of his activities in Viterbo. With Paolo Paruta, we already have the economic man enshrined in the myths of Adam Smith: “The desire to grow rich is as natural in us as the desire to live. Pier Paolo Vergerio of Capodistria attended the University of Padova and married Diana Contarini of the Contarini family in 1526. Cecil Roth, “The Jews in the Renaissance” (Philadelphia, 1959) and “A History of the Jews in England” (Oxford, 1964). Reginald Pole had been sent to Padova by Henry VIII because his claim on the English throne was as good as or better than Henry’s: Pole was a Plantagenet. Another family prominent in the effort were the Dona’, who will pop up again and again in this account. ], The other disciple of Mutianus Rufus named here, Spalatinus, is the one we focus on. These were the Spirituali, interested in the writings of Juan Valdez of Spain, who had come to Naples to teach that justification was given to us as God’s gratuitous gift. Sir Henry Wotton advanced the idea of a Protestant alliance encompassing England, Venice, the Grisons (the Graubuenden or Gray league of the Valtellina region in the Swiss Alps, sought by Spain as a land route between Austria and Milan), Holland, and the Protestant princes of Germany. Here Frederick was able to convince Maximilian to allow Luther’s case to stay in Germany. As after 1200 there had been talk of moving the capital, perhaps to Constantinople, so now plans began to hatch that would facilitate a metastasis of the Venetian cancer towards the Atlantic world. Giorgi is reputed to have contributed mightily to the initiation of a school of Venetian pseudo- Platonic mysticism in England. Previously Jews had been restricted to the role of moneylenders on the terraferma. “I found this type of book to be written by an enemy of the human race,” Pole wrote later. Giberti, the spirituale bishop of Verona on Venetian territory, and Cardinal Morone, who presided at the last sessions of the Council of Trent. There was, in the form of a Venetian Aristotelian network which reached into the court of Frederick the Wise, the Elector of Saxony, who protected Luther from Pope Leo X’s extradition demands and from the ban the empire placed on Luther by Emperor Charles V. Our knowledge of this network begins with the figure of one Conradus Mutianus Rufus, who was in the early 1500s the Kanonikus of the Marienstift in Gotha, a Latin and Greek scholar and cleric who had traveled to Italy during the period 1499-1503, and who had studied in Bologna and visited other cities, including Venice. Another prong of the Venetian war against the Renaissance was Venice’s expansion inside Italy, on the terraferma, with the aim of conquering the entire Italian peninsula and then of using Italy to dominate the world. The uzkoks, through their depredations and through the cost of measures undertaken against them, were depleting the Venetian treasury. But a king was above the laws, as he had the power to change them, and in this case he had the law of God actually in his favor….” Pole wrote this in a dedicatory epistle to Charles V. [Pole, Epistolae, 113-140] Pole says that Cromwell offered him a copy of Machiavelli’s The Prince, which he highly recommended. Video transcript. The leading anti-Aristotelian Platonist of the day did not escape condemnation: “And since they habitually read the colloquia of Erasmus to children in the schools, in which colloquia there are many things which shape these uncultivated souls towards impiety, therefore the readings of these things and any others of the same type ought to be prohibited in literary classes.” (p. 141), Erasmus had broken with Luther very early, despite the maneuvers of Spalatin, and had attacked Luther’s ideas of the bondage of the will with a reaffirmation of the Platonic concept of the freedom of the will. 134-35]. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Most stunning is the presence of Aeneas Silvius Piccolomini himself, Pope Pius II, one of the defenders of the church and of civilization: The Index banned those writings which Aeneas Silvius had retracted, presumably in a papal bull of April 26, 1463; these sustained theses of the conciliar movement. Sarpi was also a pragmatist, arguing that “we despise knowledge of things of which we have no need.” [Pensiero 289] Sarpi was also a cultural relativist, and a precursor of David Hume: Every culture has its own idea of order, he said, and “therefore the republics, the buildings, the politics of the Tartars and the Indians are different.” [Pensiero 159]. As part of the scheme, Charles Diodati, one of the Italian Spirituali who had fled to Geneva, was brought to Venice to preach. The Counter Reformation affected artists, so one can assume that through their powerful control of media, the Counter Reformation was felt through the Venetian sphere. The anti- Spanish Caraffa was the other homestretch contender, receiving support from the French cardinals led by Guise. Sarpi agreed with Montaigne that man was the most imperfect of animals. In Chatsworth House in Cornwall there is a manuscript entitled “Hobbes’ Translations of Italian Letters,” containing 77 missives from Micanzio to the Earl (called “Candiscio”). This I, the wretch who had not had enough courage for the atonement of my iniquities to leave the world and do penance, turned to him; and since I asked him to let me share in the satisfaction which he, without any sins of his own, had made for us, he was quick to accept me and to cause his Father completely to cancel the debt I had contracted, which I myself was incapable of satisfying.” [Jedin, “Ein `Thurmerlbenis’ des jungen Contarini,” p. 117 and Dermot Fenlon, “Heresy and Obedience in Tridentine Ital.” p.8.]. Venice’s cosmopolitan, fun-loving and dynamic atmosphere is largely dependent on the Venetian women who lent their beauty, charm, elegance, and sex appeal to honor the city. In his response, Erasmus warned that those handling Luther’s case on behalf of the Roman curia were in effect acting as provocateurs, seeking to exploit the Luther issue in order to suppress humanistic learning. It is not surprising that men exclusively dictated the societal expectations of women. Contarini and Pole had both corresponded with Erasmus, and Paul III offered to make him a cardinal on one occasion. He was assisted by Priuli, the Venetian banker. When he joined the general post-Cambrai shift out of Aristotelian letters and into piety, he was influenced by a certain Padre Marco of the Paduan Benedictines of Santa Giustina. Shipbuilding in the arsenal diminished. You would get some pretty nasty religious conflicts as Venice without Humanism filled, right? Counterreformation definition, a reformation opposed to or counteracting a previous reformation. The Venice of the Giovani was horrified by the apparent winding down of the wars of religion. Spalatin, a student at Erfurt, became a protégé of Mutianus Rufus in 1504, visiting him in his Gotha office where “Farewell to Cares” was inscribed on the door. The second is true but crude, permitting us to know little and that rather of things than of their causes. Contarini was joined by Caraffa, Sadoleto, Pole, Giberti, Cortese of San Giorgio Maggiore, plus prelates from Salerno and Brindisi – an overwhelmingly Venetian commission. Along with Contarini there were now: Gregorio Cortese, the abbot of the Benedictines of San Giorgio Maggiore; the English émigré Reginald Pole, a member of the former English ruling house of Plantagenet now living at Pietro Bembo’s villa (Bembo had changed his lifestyle enough to become Bishop of Bergamo and would become a cardinal); and G.P. [Yates, pp. As it turned out, Pole died a few hours after Mary. The parallels to Luther are evident, even though Contarini still allows hope and a little love a role in salvation, in addition to faith. “I have long been aware that you are afflicted with a serious and most dangerous disease,” Pole wrote. In 1575-77, there was an outbreak of the plague, with tens of thousands of deaths in Venice. This is such an untraditional version of this subject – … When Luther refused, he was excommunicated (in other words, expelled from the church). Sarpi, who was an official of the Venetian regime, soon became the idol of the libertines and freethinkers everywhere, and was soon one of the most famous and most controversial persons in Europe. In any case, Henry’s death increased the tensions among the German Protestant leaders, since they had now been deprived of their protector. For we do not think we are permitted to exempt ourselves from these laws, except for an urgent and necessary reason.” (p. 135, emphasis in original), Thus, Aristotle was made the guiding light of the “reform,” in the document that opened the campaign for the Council of Trent. R.R. Within a year of the creation of the Protestant Union in 1608, a Catholic League was formed under the aegis of Maximilian of Bavaria with Spanish support. Luther’s annotation: “This is false. This is no surprise, since Sarpi and Micanzio were in close contact with Hobbes and Bacon, sometimes directly, and sometimes through the intermediary of William Cavendish, Earl of Devonshire, a friend of Francis Bacon and the employer of Thomas Hobbes. Man was a creature of appetites, and these were insatiable, especially the libido dominandi. A married, and thus dowered, daughter or a man who died intestate had no further claim on his estate. After Luther, on Halloween 1517, had posted his theses on the door of the Wittenberg cathedral, it was Spalatin who convinced Frederick to keep the matter in Saxony, and not permit the case to go to Rome. This includes the central role of the Venetians in cutting short the Golden Renaissance of Italy, in precipitating the Protestant reformation and the wars of religion, and in creating the pseudo-scientific, irrationalist currents of thought that are called the Enlightenment. As for Sarpi, his “History of the Council of Trent” was first published in English in London in an edition dedicated to King James I, and translated by Nathaniel Brent. The author(s) of the chronicle of S. M. delle Vergini in Venice [78] partii historical and cultural context 3The convents and physical space [97] Foundation stories and foundation myths [97] Virgins of Venice: Broken Vows and Cloistered Lives in the Renaissance Convent. Furthermore, Venice’s widely diverse population cultivated a broader-minded and more tolerant society that granted women alternate means of establishing themselves. One is from Eastertide 1511, when Contarini went first to the Benedictine monastery on the island of San Giorgio Maggiore, and then to San Sebastiano. Mary was wed to Philip II of Spain, creating the possibility of an Anglo-Spanish rapprochement that was highly unacceptable to Venice. This made what Leo X had dismissed as “a quarrel among monks” into the Reformation. Jews were obliged to live in the quarter called the ghetto, whose residents were subjected to special discriminatory laws and were obliged to wear a yellow star of David. Catherine had been previously married to Henry’s brother Arthur. Later, the combined effect of the Venice- sponsored Protestant Reformation and the Venice- sponsored Counter- Reformation was to visit upon Europe the renewed horrors of 1520-1648, to which the British historian Trevor-Roper has referred under the heading of the “little Dark Age.” Today the shadows of another such nightmare epoch lengthen over the ruined economies, gutted cities and ethnic conflicts of the late twentieth century. Because of these guidelines, women were denied freedom of mind and body, and their identities were confined within their own domestic fortresses. And from this source, as if from a Trojan horse, have come into the church of God so much abuse and such serious sickness, that we now see the church afflicted almost by despair of recovery. Research seminar series 2015-16; Speaker: Faith Trend (University of Birmingham). They were instructed and expected to become devoted mothers, and to rear and raise their children as proper Christians. Cozzi, “Paolo Sarpi fra Venezia e l’Europa” (Torino, Einaudi, 1978). In February 1506, with the Cambrai war clouds on the horizon, Aldus had written to Mutianus’s disciple Urbanus: “I most highly esteem S. Mutianus Rufus because of his learning and humanity and confess myself to be very much in his debt, on the one hand because he constantly speaks well of me, and on the other because he kindly procured for me the friendship of a man decked out with learning and holy ways like you. It is not known exactly when Spalatin met Luther for the first time, but Luther’s first extant letter to Spalatin is placed in about February 1514, in the middle of the Thurmerlebnis [tower experience] period. Literate women could even be suspected of witchcraft since popular opinion endowed the written word with “magic powers.” Women were forced to suppress their individual needs and desires to their husbands, all in the name of rationality and civic decorum. TRUE. Here Contarini was also present, though all sources consulted are suspiciously emphatic that Contarini, present as the Venetian ambassador to Charles V, never met personally with Luther, although the two were at the plenary sessions. As regards satisfaction for sins committed, and into which human weakness falls, His passion is sufficient and more than sufficient. The morals and the beliefs of the population were very much influenced by the Catholic Church.This is remarkable given the corruption and the dec… Such were the Masonic beginnings of the Venetian Party, which, by the accession of James I, became the dominant force in British life. In about 1624, Bacon addressed a memorandum to the new King Charles I in which he urged that England declare war on Spain in order to help restore the Elector Palatine (and Charles’s sister) in Heidelberg. Jacob Sadoleto, Italian who was elected as a reformist cardinal. The accusation made here is almost identical to Luther’s, who had told Erasmus, “You are not pious!”. For Erasmus, humanistic learning was Platonic. When Contarini returned in 1525 from his mission with Charles V in Germany, the Low Countries, and Spain, he told the Senate: “The character and customs of the Germans are close to feral; they are robust and courageous in war; they have little regard for death; they are suspicious but not fraudulent or malicious; they are not sublimely intelligent, but they apply themselves with so much determination and perseverance that they succeed as well in various manual crafts as they do in letters, in which many are now devoting themselves and make great profit…. This was made easier by going from a gold to a silver standard in 1562. “Dictionary of National Biography” (London, 1921). [See Graham Lowry, “How the Nation was Won”] Thus it is that the Venetian methods that were used deliberately to provoke the wars of religion of the sixteenth century, and later the Thirty Years’ War itself, can be discerned in the global strategic commitments of today’s British oligarchy tending to unleash a global cataclysm, a bellum omnium contra omnes (war of each against all) which no nation and no people could seriously hope to survive. xxvi, 365. [See Serge Hutin, “Histoire des Rose-Croix,” p. 125]. Beyond that, the oligarchs would seek to preserve the Rialto as a cultural and ideological center. Part of this impoverishment was due to the fact that Venice, in spite of its wretched economy, was pursuing a policy of totally retiring the public debt. The growing discredit of the Roman church, which was more worried about its material enrichment than the direction of the faithful, helped the reform of Martin Luther take importance. Women were widely viewed as emblems of Catholic morality, serving primarily as matriarchs of the domestic household. They appear to have been thinking of the fundamentalism of isolated Biblical quotations as it has in fact flourished among the Protestant sects.) Sarpi’s animus against Henry IV suggests that the superficial explanation of Henry’s assassination in 1610 may not be the correct one. It is evident that family fondi that had been invested in the monti [loans] were being transferred elsewhere as flight capital: One destination was certainly the Amsterdam Bank, which was founded at about this time. The Counter-Reformation was the official reaction of the Roman Catholic Church against the Protestant Reformation; the Counter-Reformation was slow at the beginning. During the Interdict battle, Sarpi’s intelligence agencies went into action to create the preconditions for such a war, not in Italy, but beyond the Alps in Germany. First came the creation of the Protestant Union of 1608, helped by the crushing of the free city of Donauwoerth by the counter- reformation under Maximilian I of Bavaria. For Luther, the devil is an independent power who rules over the material world, so good works belong to the devil; human reason is the “bride and whore” of the devil. (This puts Luther’s “Here I stay, I cannot do otherwise” in a new light.) Bacon’s ideas about inductive method were taken from the “Arte di ben pensare” and other Sarpi writings. ; Research Companion to the Counter-Reformation, ed. Arrayed later around these were the Bishop of Carpentras Jacopo Sadoleto, G.M. He had been made cardinal by Alexander VI Borgia, usually seen by church historians as the most reprobate of the Renaissance popes. Caraffa of Naples, linked to the Oratory of Divine Love in Rome, co-founder of the new Theatine Order and later Pope Paul IV. If Europe could unite against Venice, what could Venice do to divide and rend Europe so thoroughly that it would tear itself to pieces for more than a century? He had been made cardinal by Alexander VI Borgia, usually seen by church historians as the most reprobate of the Renaissance popes. This was the signal that something big was coming. (5) Here recent studies detailing the civic and social institutions of Renaissance Venice and Rome provide a textured background for our analysis. The essence of Venice is oligarchism, usury, slavery, and the cult of Aristotle. [Irmgard Hoess, George Spalatin (Weimar, 1956)]. A woman’s dowry was her entire inheritance. Because Giulia Farnese had been Alexander VI’s mistress at this time, Cardinal Farnese was known as the petticoat cardinal. Finally, Cardinal Del Monte was elected as Julius III, and reigned from 1550 to 1555. Later, through the circle set up by Reginald Pole at Viterbo, Vittoria Colonna and Giulia Gonzaga would come into the picture, joined by Marcantonio Flamminio, Ochino, Vermigli, and others. 169-171] Frederick was not the only one infected by the Rosicrucian bacillus in these years in which the saga of “Christian Rosenkreuz” first appeared in Germany. The use of the papal interdict against a nominally Catholic country caused a sensation in the Protestant world, where tremendous sympathy for Venice was generated by an avalanche of propaganda writings, above all those of Sarpi himself. The naval victory of Lepanto in 1571 had not been sufficient to regain Cyprus from the Ottoman Empire, and Venice had been widely attacked for making a separate peace with the Ottomans. (This proposes the death penalty for Jews who do not convert and a war with the Turks in alliance with the young leader of Persia, identified as “Sophi.” This is all in addition to the attacks on the schoolmen mentioned above. The celebrated practice of courtesanship supplied the island-republic with an exotic flare that set Venice apart from many other European cities. “I know that your deeds are the source of all this evil.” “The succession of the kingdom is called into doubt for love of a harlot…. Women of the lower class kept the city’s working industries alive through artisan and trade-craft practices, while women of the nobility and upper class served as catalysts and donors in the maintenance of charitable hospices, which assured the welfare of hundreds of unfortunate people. Male voiceover: That's what concerned the Inquisition. The first step was to organize Germany into two armed camps, similar to the pre-1914 or post-1945 European military blocs. Pole on one occasion advised Vittoria Colonna that she should believe as if salvation depended on faith alone, while acting as if it were dependent on good works as well. The item Venice and the defense of republican liberty : Renaissance values in the age of the Counter Reformation, by William J. Bouwsma, (electronic resource) represents a specific, individual, material embodiment of a distinct intellectual or artistic creation found in University of San Diego Libraries. Elmar Weiss, “Die Unterstuetzung Friedrichs V. von der Pflaz durch Jacob I. und Karl I. von England im Dreissigjaehrigen Krieg 1618-1632” (Stuttgart, 1966). “You must warn the Pope not to drive us into despair,” he told the papal nuncio, “because we would then act like desperate men!” Sir Henry Wotton took this literally, and included in his alliance proposals plans to get Venice to go Protestant. Paul III had studied with the humanist Pomponius Laetus. Similarly, the pseudo- scientific method cooked up by Francis Bacon using the epistemological writings of Paolo Sarpi portrayed itself as tearing down the authority of Aristotle in favor of scientific experiment. Irmgard Hoess, “Georg Spalatin 1484-1545” (Weimar, 1956). This was the man who judicially murdered St. Thomas More, the eminent Erasmian. Heinrich Mathias von Thurn demanded and got the Letter of Majesty, which soon turned into the apple of Bohemian discord. The Beneficio had been written by a Benedictine (Benedetto Fontanino) using Calvin’s “Institutes of the Christian Religion” of 1539. The state was close to bankruptcy, and had to borrow from the Chigi of Siena. Gasparo Contariniwas appointed ambassador of Venice, England, Spain and Italy. 21-22]. Luther appears to reflect the influence of the pseudo-Hermes Trismegistus and his “Book of the 24 Philosophers.”. Eugenio Alberi (ed. They chose Frederick V, the Elector Palatine, who had his court in Heidelberg, and who, as we have seen, counted Christian von Anhalt and Christoph von Dona among his most trusted advisers. Culture and Religion in Early Modern Italy: Contexts and Contestations. Palmer, p. 106] In the 1600s this civil strife was called the Fronde, and it would be decades before the Fronde was suppressed to the point that France was capable of international action once again. Frederick V was encouraged to believe that with the aid of a few troops from Venetian-allied Savoy, plus the Bohemians, and support from a few other German states, he could break the Spanish- Austrian- Catholic hold on central Europe. H. Schroeder (Rockford, Ill., 1941). formed These organizations challenged theteachings of the Catholic Church This challengefrom the outside led to reforms within the Catholicchurch This movement is known as the Counter Reformation. He is just, therefore He punishes. I began with my whole spirit to turn to this greatest good which I saw, for love of me, on the cross, with his arms open, and his breast opened up right to his heart. [Dwyer, pp. The Counter Reformation affected artists, so one can assume that through their powerful control of media, the Counter Reformation was felt through the Venetian sphere. The Austrian Hapsburgs, in order to defend their frontier with the Ottoman Empire, employed a force of refugees from the Balkans called uzkoks (the Serbian word for refugees). The contacts between Venice and England during the period around 1600 were so dense as to constitute an “Anglo-Venetian coalition,” as Enrico De Mas asserts. Towards the end of the sixteenth century, Spain was showing signs of economic decline, and was attempting to retrench on her military commitments. Spain made peace with France in 1598, with England in 1604, and, after decades of warfare, began to negotiate with the Dutch. The Catholic Reformation is also referred to frequently as the Counter Reformation. What is called the Catholic Reformation or Counter- Reformation is said to begin with the pontificate of Paul III Farnese. Later in the century there would be the Bank of England. Accordingly, in July 1521, Aurelio Vergerio set off on a trip to the domain of Frederick the Wise, only to turn back at Innsbruck on account of illness. In 1557, Caraffa instituted the Index Librorum Prohibitorum. The protection of a woman’s chastity was vitally important, especially for younger women. In some ways, it does just look like a banquet and not a Last Supper. Pius II, “The Commentaries,” Smith College Studies in History, October 1939 ff. “Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie” (Leipzig, 1876), for Christian von Anhalt and Frederick V Elector of the Palatinate. Schenk then turned his attention to another member of the Vergerio clan. 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