[20]  [20]Particularly interesting in relation to the Washington Descent from the Cross is his drawing of the Lamentation of Christ on the Cross. Heavily discolored varnish and extensive repainting [fig. ‘The descent from the cross by torchlight’ was created in 1654 by Rembrandt in Baroque style. Eventually, it seems, he concluded that so few remnants of the earlier head with the flat-shaped hat existed that it behooved him to repaint the turbaned figure he had just removed. [4] The Bachstitz Gallery, preface by G. Gronau, 3 vols., Berlin, 1921: 1:5, pl. Although the image of Christ is difficult to read because of the density of the lead white paint, his legs were initially bent back in a position comparable to that in the 1634 composition. It also reminds us of the complex conservation issues that often confront our assessments of paintings by Rembrandt and his workshop. Rembrandt Harmensz. 2188xx. Van Renesse had a preference for biblical scenes, many of which focused on the life of Christ. If this hypothesis is correct, one could then argue that Van Renesse was a far more central figure in Rembrandt’s workshop in the early 1650s than has hitherto been believed. [22]  [22]See Jacques Foucart, Peintres rembranesques au Louvre (Paris, 1988), 108–113; Werner Sumowski, Gemälde der Rembrandt-Schüler, 5 vols. 6] Detail of the head, X-radiograph composite, Rembrandt Workshop (Probably Constantijn van Renesse), The Descent from the Cross, 1650/1652, oil on canvas, National Gallery of Art, Washington, Widener Collection, 1942.9.61. Europe (place of creation) Date. Many questions thus remain: what was the date of the original composition of the Washington Descent from the Cross; who painted it; how and why were the later reworkings undertaken; and who was the artist responsible? 2188xx. (painter) Harriet, viscountess Hampden [née Burton, 1751-1829], London;[1] (her estate sale, Christie & Manson, London, 19 April 1834 [originally 18 April], no. Not only did the paint on the turban cover existing craquelure, but X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy performed by the NGA Scientific Research department showed it contained antimony, an element found in Naples yellow, a pigment not commonly used before the mid-eighteenth century (see report dated July 1978 in NGA Conservation department files). Rembrandt received a commission from the court in about 1628 through Constantijn Huygens, secretary to the Prince of Orange, for five paintings of the Passion of Christ. This information is taken from a clipping from an unidentified English newspaper, dated July 3, 1909, on file at the Rijksbureau voor Kunsthistorisches Documentatie (RKD). Such a theory, however, seems quite plausible, particularly given the fact that a number of changes do exist between the X-radiograph [see X-radiographyX-radiography A photographic or digital image analysis method that visually records an object's ability to absorb or transmit x-rays. Rembrandt must have taken a great deal of interest in his work, if one is to judge from the drawings by Van Renesse that he corrected. Pfalz, 1983), 4:2469–2470. The dynamically posed, monumental figures in this powerful and agitated composition make it one of the most important works done by the younger generation of Mannerist painters in…, …Seville cathedral in the “Descent from the Cross” (1547) by Pedro Campaña (Pieter de Kempeneer), an artist from Brussels, and subsequently in the refined court portraiture of Anthonis Mor (Sir Anthony More) and Alonso Sánchez Coello, whose royal portraits possess an elegance reminiscent of Bronzino’s Florentine style. Although slight distortions in thread patterns in the canvas at the top and right indicate that these edges may have been trimmed a small amount, no such scalloping patterns are evident along the left or the bottom, an indication that the canvas has most likely been reduced substantially along these edges. 528x407 mm; 20 3/4x16 1/8 inches, narrow to thread margins. Indeed, this figure must have been a later addition. no. It was probably at that time that the signature and date were added, and that the head, shoulders, and turban of the figure in the foreground were overpainted. Such a comparison shows that Rembrandt had fundamentally transformed Rubens’s heroic pathos into a powerful realism that evokes in the viewer a deep sense of involvement in… The cross-sections also suggest that the extensive changes in the National Gallery of Art painting were made only after the first composition had been blocked out with a thin, dark layer of paint. Pfalz, 1983), 4: no. It is exactly the same thought process that occurs in the Washington Descent from the Cross. For a discussion of this painting, see Franklin W. Robinson and William H. Wilson, Catalogue of the Flemish and Dutch Paintings, 1400–1900 (Sarasota, Fla., 1980), no. 7]   [fig. [1] The painting has been lined with the tacking margins removed. (New York, 1979–1992), 9: no. Rembrandt, who based his 1633 Descent from the Cross for the Passion series on Lucas Vorsterman’s reproductive engraving after Rubens’ altarpiece The Descent from the Cross, now in the Antwerp Cathedral, may have decided to emulate not only Rubens’ composition but also the large scale in which Rubens worked. from the right edge. Rembrandt (Rembrandt van Rijn) Dutch. Walter L. Strauss, 10 vols. (Dordrecht, Boston, and London, 1989), 134, no. Photo © The State Hermitage Museum. The series started with the Raising of the Cross and Descent from the Cross. Wolfgang Stechow, “Rembrandts Darstellungen der Kreuzabnahme,” Jahrbuch der Preussischen Kunstsammlungen 50 (1919): 229, places the painting within the broad tradition of Rembrandt’s paintings, drawings, and etchings. (Cambridge, Mass., 1948), 1:134–135 (also reprint, Rembrandt: Life and Work [Greenwich, Conn., 1964], 220–221), emphasizes that while the action has been reduced, the emotional content has been enriched through the stability of the composition and the breadth and vigor of the paint handling. Find more prominent pieces of religious painting at Wikiart.org – best visual art database. The painting underwent treatment in 1991–1992 to remove discolored varnish and overpaint. [3] The ground and paint were analyzed by the NGA Scientific Research department using cross-sections, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, polarized light microscopy, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, and gas chromatography in conjunction with mass spectrometry (see reports dated July 1978; July 8, 1991; August 10, 1991; August 14, 1991; October 8, 1991; November 15, 1991; December 2, 1991; plus undated cross-section studies, 1991, in NGA Conservation department files). 5] Detail of head of the middle-aged man, Rembrandt Workshop (Probably Constantijn van Renesse). Similar figure types also occur in paintings convincingly attributed to Van Renesse. Additionally, the two together help to remind us of Rembrandt's versatility across different mediums, somehow being able to achieve great success with different specialist tools. He reels backwards, mouth open, eyebrows raised in amazement at your startling arrival. 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