[31] Nearby were residences,[32] the Temple of Baalshamin,[33] and the Byzantine churches, which include "Basilica IV", Palmyra's largest church. Records of the name "Tadmor" date from the early second millennium BC;[1] eighteenth century BC tablets from Mari written in cuneiform record the name as "Ta-ad-mi-ir", while Assyrian inscriptions of the eleventh century BC record it as "Ta-ad-mar". [56] The Romans followed the empress, captured her near the Euphrates and brought her back to the emperor. [44][45] Arabs arrived in the city in the late first millennium BC. [200] Non-Palmyrene soldiers were also recruited; a Nabatean cavalryman is recorded in 132 as serving in a Palmyrene unit stationed at Anah. These criteria are: dispersion in a wide geographical range; orientation towards a homeland through the usage of own language and reference to a distinct origin and pantheon; the usage of own language and origin to preserve a distinct identity amongst host societies. [3][4] The etymology of the name is unclear; the standard interpretation, supported by Albert Schultens, connects it to the Semitic word for "date palm", tamar (.mw-parser-output .script-hebrew,.mw-parser-output .script-Hebr{font-family:"SBL Hebrew","SBL BibLit","Frank Ruehl CLM","Taamey Frank CLM","Ezra SIL","Ezra SIL SR","Keter Aram Tsova","Taamey Ashkenaz","Taamey David CLM","Keter YG","Shofar","David CLM","Hadasim CLM","Simple CLM","Nachlieli",Cardo,Alef,"Noto Serif Hebrew","Noto Sans Hebrew","David Libre",David,"Times New Roman",Gisha,Arial,FreeSerif,FreeSans}תמר‎),[note 1][7][8] thus referring to the palm trees that surrounded the city. The Empire of Palmyra's national animal is the Sandworm, which frolics freely in the nation's many lush forests. Zenobia 240 – c. 275, was a 3rd-century Queen of the Palmyrene Empire in Roman Syria. [278] Zenobia was defeated again at the Battle of Emesa, taking refuge in Homs before quickly returning to her capital. [276] According to one account, Roman general Marcus Aurelius Probus regained Egypt from Palmyra;[note 29][277] Aurelian entered Issus and headed to Antioch, where he defeated Zenobia in the Battle of Immae. [70] Warwick Ball viewed the rebellion as aimed at Rome's throne, not just Palmyrene independence. After the death of the Palmyrene leader Odaenathus in 267 AD, the Palmyrene Empire broke away from the Empire; it consisted of the provinces of Syria, Aegyptus, and Palestine. [65] Aside from the existence of a Palmyrene ethnicity, Aramean or Arab are the two main ethnic designations debated by historians;[60] Javier Teixidor stated that "Palmyra was an Aramaean city and it is a mistake to consider it as an Arab town", while Yasamin Zahran criticized this statement and argued that the inhabitants considered themselves Arabs. The Babylonian cult of Bel-Marduk influenced the Palmyrene religion and by 217 BC the chief deity's name was changed to Bel. The Phoenician religion was polytheistic, and their gods required sacrifices to forestall disaster, especially Baal, the God of Storms, and his consort Tanit. [451] Goods were imported from India, China and Transoxiana,[452] and exported west to Emesa (or Antioch) then the Mediterranean ports,[453] from which they were distributed throughout the Roman Empire. [380] During Zenobia's rebellion, governors were appointed by the queen. Estimates vary from as low as 30,000 to 200,000; the latter number is doubted considering the environment of Palmyra and its hinterland which makes it difficult to provide the population with the necessary foodstuff. [435] Some caravans were financed by a single merchant,[76] such as Male' Agrippa (who financed Hadrian's visit in 129 and the 139 rebuilding of the Temple of Bel). Neither the British, French or Arab armies attacked the Sanjak. [368][369] Roman provincial authority set and approved Palmyra's tariff structure,[370] but the provincial interference in local government was kept minimal as the empire sought to ensure the continuous success of Palmyrene trade most beneficial to Rome. [211] Palmyra saw intensive construction during the first century, including the city's first walled fortifications,[213] and the Temple of Bel (completed and dedicated in 32 AD). [376] By 257 Odaenathus was known as a consularis, possibly the legatus of the province of Phoenice. [309], During the mid-twelfth century, Palmyra was ruled by the Zengid king Nur ad-Din Mahmud. [6] Finally, Shapur I of Persia inflicted a disastrous defeat upon the Romans at the Battle of Edessa in 260,[7] capturing the Roman emperor Valerian and soon, Quietus and Macrianus rebelled against Valerian's son Gallienus and usurped the imperial power in Syria. [261] Zenobia, the mother of the new king, was the de facto ruler and Vaballathus remained in her shadow while she consolidated her power. The Palmyrene Empire was ruled by Queen Zenobia for her infant son Vaballathus. [344] Although merchants used the patrons to conduct business, their roles often overlapped and a patron would sometimes lead a caravan. [48] The Arab newcomers were assimilated by the earlier inhabitants, used Palmyrene as a mother tongue,[49] and formed a significant segment of the aristocracy. [343] Since 1958, the site has been excavated by the Syrian Directorate-General of Antiquities,[342] and Polish expeditions of the Polish Centre of Mediterranean Archaeology University of Warsaw,[466] led by many archaeologists including Kazimierz Michałowski (until 1980) and Michael Gawlikowski (until 2009). SheikhZabdibel, who aided the Seleucids in the battle of Raphia (217 BC), was mentioned as the commander of "the arabs and neighbouring tribes to the number of ten thousands"; Zabdibel and his me… 354 days ago. [459] Patrons owned the land on which the caravan animals were raised, providing animals and guards for the merchants. Finally, Shapur I of Persia inflicted a disastrous defeat upon the Romans at the Battle of Edessa in 260, capturing the Roman emperor Valerian … [423] The high priest of Bel's temple was the highest religious authority and headed the clergy of priests who were organized into collegia each headed by a higher priest. [25][27] According to the Persian geographer Ibn Khordadbeh, Zenobia herself attacked Dumat Al-Jandal but could not conquer its castle. [268] Palmyra invaded Anatolia the following year, reaching Ankara and the pinnacle of its expansion. [390] [9] Michael Patrick O'Connor (1988) suggested that the names "Palmyra" and "Tadmor" originated in the Hurrian language. [408][409], The deities worshiped in the countryside were depicted as camel or horse riders and bore Arab names. The clans might have gathered under the name of the four tribes causing them to disappear. [296] Most of the new rulers acknowledged the caliph as their nominal sovereign, a situation which continued until the Mongol destruction of the Abbasid Caliphate in 1258. [16] Although the city's walls originally enclosed an extensive area on both banks of the wadi,[16] the walls rebuilt during Aurelian's reign surrounded only the northern-bank section. [318] Al-Ashraf Musa asked the Mamluk sultan Qutuz for pardon and was accepted as a vassal. ", "Isis driven out of ancient Syrian city of Palmyra for second time", "Damages to Palmyra ruins in Syrian recapture less than feared, experts say", "A Jailed Activist's 3-D Models Could Save Syria's History From ISIS", "What was it Like to be a Palmyrene in the Age of Crisis? [352] During ISIL's occupation of the site, Palmyra's theatre was used as a place of public executions of their opponents and captives; videos were released by ISIL showing the killing of Syrian prisoners in front of crowds at the theatre. This scenario can explain the usage of Aramaic by the Elephantine Jews, and the Amherst Papyrus 63, while not mentioning Palmyra, refers to a "fortress of palms" that is located near a spring on a trade route in the fringes of the desert, making Palmyra a plausible candidate. Aurelian, if you will conquer, be merciful!". [301] Earthquakes devastated Palmyra in 1068 and 1089. [54][57], Aurelian spared the city and stationed a garrison of 600 archers led by a certain Sandarion, as a peacekeeping force. [87] Classical Palmyra had a distinctive culture,[88] based on a local Semitic tradition,[89] and influenced by Greece and Rome. [297], The population of the city started to decrease in the ninth century and the process continued in the tenth century. [366][367] Palmyra's military was led by strategoi (generals) appointed by the council. [53] Benjamin of Tudela recorded the existence of 2,000 Jews in the city during the twelfth century. From the state of Palmyra rose a leader, Odaenathus, who repelled the Persian forces and consolidated the east in the name of Rome, but at the price of styling himself king. Finally, Shapur I of Persia inflicted a disastrous defeat upon the Romans at the Battle of Edessa in 260, capturing the Roman emperor Valerian and soon, Quietus and Macrianus rebelled against Valerian's son Gallienusand usurpe… [171] It was mentioned next in the Mari tablets as a stop for trade caravans and nomadic tribes, such as the Suteans,[57] and was conquered along with its region by Yahdun-Lim of Mari. [178], The Hebrew Bible (Second Book of Chronicles 8:4) records a city by the name "Tadmor" as a desert city built (or fortified) by King Solomon of Israel;[179] Flavius Josephus mentions the Greek name "Palmyra", attributing its founding to Solomon in Book VIII of his Antiquities of the Jews. The Empire fragments forever. [86][293], In 750 a revolt, led by Majza'a ibn al-Kawthar and Umayyad pretender Abu Muhammad al-Sufyani, against the new Abbasid Caliphate swept across Syria;[294] the tribes in Palmyra supported the rebels. [403] The city's chief pre-Hellenistic deity was called Bol,[404] an abbreviation of Baal (a northwestern Semitic honorific). The reading is contested, but according to semitologist André Dupont-Sommer, the inscription records the distance to "Tdmr" (Palmyra). [458], The caravan trade depended on patrons and merchants. [151] The 4-hectare (9.9-acre) camp was a base for the Legio I Illyricorum,[151] which guarded the trade routes around the city. [465], Palmyra's first excavations were conducted in 1902 by Otto Puchstein and in 1917 by Theodor Wiegand. In the 3rd century the Empire underwent a crisis that threatened its existence, as the Gallic Empire and Palmyrene Empire broke away from the Roman state, and a series of short-lived emperors, often from the legions, led the empire. [265] This was followed in October by an invasion of Egypt,[266][267] ending with a Palmyrene victory and Zenobia's proclamation as queen of Egypt. The local leader worships the old gods, and, seeking to fight the encroaching of Christianity, he declares himself Pharaoh of the 32nd Dynasty, First of His Name. [187] During the first centuries AD, Palmyra's main trade route ran east to the Euphrates where it connected at the city of Hīt. Offerings to gods in the names of women are documented. [85] Following its destruction by Timur, Palmyra maintained the life of a small settlement until its relocation in 1932. The Palmyrene empire takes over much of the Middle East. [260], Odaenathus was succeeded by his son; the ten-year-old Vaballathus. [79] The council, headed by a president,[366] managed civic responsibilities;[204] it supervised public works (including the construction of public buildings), approved expenditures, collected taxes,[204] and appointed two archons (lords) each year. [32] The Palmyrene irrigation system was discovered in 2008 by Jørgen Christian Meyer who researched the Palmyrene countryside through ground inspections and satellite images. [232][374] Whether Odaenathus' title indicated a military or a priestly position is unknown,[375] but the military role is more likely. Palmyrene (plural Palmyrenes) A native or inhabitant of ancient Palmyra or Palmyrena. [406][415], Although the Palmyrenes worshiped their deities as individuals, some were associated with other gods. [451] In addition to the usual route some Palmyrene merchants used the Red Sea,[452] probably as a result of the Roman–Parthian Wars. The king was succeeded by regent Queen Zenobia, who rebelled against Rome and established the Palmyrene Empire. [note 18][208] This was followed by the arrival of the Roman legion Legio X Fretensis the following year. Palmyra (/ˌpælˈmaɪrə/; Palmyrene: Tadmor; Arabic: تَدْمُر‎ Tadmur) is an ancient Semitic city in present-day Homs Governorate, Syria. [38] The Palmyrenes subdued Galatia,[38] and occupied Ankara, marking the greatest extent of the Palmyrene expansion. [253] Although he did not take the Persian capital, Odaenathus drove the Persians out of all Roman lands conquered since the beginning of Shapur's wars in 252. [430] Some scholars criticize the notion of Malakbel's identification with Sol Invictus; according to Gaston Halsberghe, the cult of Malakbel was too local for it to become an imperial Roman god and Aurelian's restoration of Bel's temple and sacrifices dedicated to Malakbel were a sign of his attachment to the sun god in general and his respect to the many ways in which the deity was worshiped. [433] The oasis had about 1,000 hectares (2,500 acres) of irrigable land,[439] which surrounded the city. [243] In practice, Palmyra shifted from a provincial city to a de facto allied kingdom. [7] According to the suggestion by Schultens, "Palmyra" could have arisen as a corruption of "Tadmor", via an unattested form "Talmura", changed to "Palmura" by the influence of the Latin word palma (date "palm"),[1] in reference to the city's palm trees, then the name reached its final form "Palmyra". Archaeological finds date back to the Neolithic period and the city was first documented in the early second millennium BC. Under her rule, Palmyra expanded from modern Syria all the way from Iraq through Turkey and into Egypt.. [104] Sarcophagi appeared in the late second century and were used in some of the tombs. [1][8], An alternative suggestion connects the name to the Syriac tedmurtā (ܬܕܡܘܪܬܐ) "miracle", hence tedmurtā "object of wonder", from the root dmr "to wonder"; this possibility was mentioned favourably by Franz Altheim and Ruth Altheim-Stiehl (1973), but rejected by Jean Starcky (1960) and Michael Gawlikowski (1974). The city became a Roman colonia during the third century, leading to the incorporation of Roman governing institutions, before becoming a monarchy in 260. [note 24][234] According to the Augustan History, Odaenathus declared himself king prior to the battle. Italian-Syrian Archaeological Mission of the University of Milan, 360° full-screen photospheric visit of Palmyra, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Palmyra&oldid=988121409, Populated places established in the 3rd millennium BC, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Pages using multiple image with auto scaled images, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 11 November 2020, at 05:59. [73] Many scholars ascribe the disappearance of the language to a change in society resulting from the reorganization of the Eastern Roman frontier following the fall of Zenobia. [18][19][20] No inscriptions or other evidence exist for Maeonius' reign, and he was probably killed immediately after assassinating Odaenathus. [176] Palmyra was mentioned in a 13th-century BC tablet discovered at Emar, which recorded the names of two "Tadmorean" witnesses. The name Palmyra, meaning “city of palm trees,” was conferred upon the city by its Roman rulers in the 1st century ce; Tadmur, Tadmor, or Tudmur, the pre-Semitic name of the site, is also still in use. [334] The Ottoman governor of Syria, Mehmed Rashid Pasha, established a garrison in the village to control the Bedouin in 1867. [60] Some scholars, such as Andrew M. Smith II, consider ethnicity a concept related to modern nationalism, and prefer not to describe the Palmyrenes with ethnic designations they themselves did not know, concluding that there is a lack of evidence regarding what ethnicity the Palmyrenes perceived themselves. Video \(\PageIndex{1}\): A conversation between Dr. Salaam al-Kuntar and Dr. Steven Zucker about the ancient city of Palmyra while looking at six funerary reliefs, c. 150-200 C.E., varying dimensions, limestone (The Metropolitan Museum of Art). [119] Similar to the Second Temple, the sanctuary consisted of a large courtyard with the deity's main shrine off-center against its entrance (a plan preserving elements of the temples of Ebla and Ugarit). [8] According to this theory, "Tadmor" derives from the Hurrian word tad ("to love") with the addition of the typical Hurrian mid vowel rising (mVr) formant mar. 4. [343][467] The stratigraphic sounding beneath the Temple of Bel was conducted in 1967 by Robert du Mesnil du Buisson,[87] who also discovered the Temple of Baal-hamon in the 1970s. A multicultural society. [41] However, toward the end of 271, Vaballathus took the title of Augustus (emperor) along with his mother. The name Palmyra, meaning “city of palm trees,” was conferred upon the city by its Roman rulers in the 1st century ce; Tadmur, Tadmor, or Tudmur, the pre-Semitic name of the site, is also still in use. In 270, Zenobia rapidly conquered most of the Roman east, attempting to maintain relations with Rome as a legitimate power. [255] The king and his son were assassinated during their return in 267;[256] according to the Augustan History and Joannes Zonaras, Odaenathus was killed by a cousin (Zonaras says nephew) named in the History as Maeonius. Original German-language edition: Historischer Atlas der antiken Welt. [348] In 2013, the façade of the Temple of Bel sustained a large hole from mortar fire, and colonnade columns have been damaged by shrapnel. The Babylonian cult of Bel-Marduk influenced the Palmyrene religion and by 217 BC the chief deity's name was changed to Bel. Although not much is known of Zenobia’s ancestry, she was likely of noble descent, and may have even been a descendant of Cleopatra. [285] Palmyra became a Christian city in the decades following its destruction by Aurelian. Unfortunately these included important parts, such as the Temple of Bel, while the Arc of Triumph can be rebuilt." [323], Muhanna was forgiven and restored by an-Nasir in 1330; he remained loyal to the sultan until his death in 1335, when he was succeeded by his son. Now, the Palmyrenes abandoned their allegiance to Rome as well: in 269, the Palmyrene Empire invaded Anatolia and even reached Ancyra (modern Ankara). [257][258][259] However, no inscriptions or other evidence exist for Maeonius' reign. [137] During the first century Palmyra developed from a minor desert caravan station into a leading trading center,[note 21][193] with Palmyrene merchants establishing colonies in surrounding trade centers. [97] The Palmyrenes were noted archers. [295], Abbasid power dwindled during the 10th century, when the empire disintegrated and was divided among a number of vassals. Although not much is known of Zenobia’s ancestry, she was likely of noble descent, and may have even been a descendant of Cleopatra. [257] The Augustan History also says that Maeonius was proclaimed emperor for a brief period before being killed by the soldiers. The Palmyrene Empire at its zenith in 271. A bilingual inscription (in Akkadian and Aramaic) found in 1979 at Tell Fekhariye, near Tell Halaf, on the border between Syria and Turkey, records the gratitude of Hadadyisi, ruler of Sikanu and Guzanu, to Hadad of Sikanu. [280], Palmyra was reduced to a village and it largely disappeared from historical records of that period. [10] The second view, supported by some philologists, such as Jean Starcky, holds that Palmyra is a translation of "Tadmor" (assuming that it meant palm), which had derived from the Greek word for palm, "palame". [106][107], Although Palmyrene art was related to that of Greece, it had a distinctive style unique to the middle-Euphrates region. [7] It is generally believed that "Palmyra" derives from "Tadmor" and linguists have presented two possibilities; one view holds that Palmyra was an alteration of Tadmor. [373] The council remained, and the strategos designated one of two annually-elected magistrates. [73] The archaeologist Karol Juchniewicz ascribed it to a change in the ethnic composition of the city, resulting from the influx of people who did not speak Aramaic, probably a Roman legion. [430] Three deities from Palmyra exemplified solar features: Malakbel, Yarhibol and Šams, hence the identification of the Palmyrene Helios appearing in Zosimus' work with Malakbel. [note 28][270], The following year, Aurelian crossed the Bosphorus and advanced quickly through Anatolia. [52] During the Umayyad period, Palmyra was mainly inhabited by the Kalb tribe. [365], The Palmyrene council consisted of about six hundred members of the local elite (such as the elders or heads of wealthy families or clans),[note 33][204] representing the city's four-quarters. Latin and Greek writers referred to her as Zenobia. [81] Women seem to have been active in Palmyra's social and public life. [23] Under the regency of Zenobia,[23][24] Vaballathus was kept in the shadow while his mother assumed actual rule and consolidated her power. [110] However, the origin of frontality that characterized Palmyrene and Parthian arts is a controversial issue; while Parthian origin has been suggested (by Daniel Schlumberger),[111] Michael Avi-Yonah contends that it was a local Syrian tradition that influenced Parthian art. [23] However, excavation supports the theory that the tell was originally located on the southern bank, and the wadi was diverted south of the tell to incorporate the temple into Palmyra's late first and early second century urban organization on the north bank. Palmyra, ancient city in south-central Syria, 130 miles (210 km) northeast of Damascus. [316][333] The prince fell from grace with the Ottomans in 1633 and lost control of the village,[332] which remained a separate sanjak until it was absorbed by Zor Sanjak in 1857. [261] To protect the borders with Persia, Zenobia fortified different settlements on the Euphrates including the citadels of Halabiye and Zalabiye. No evidence exists for Roman units serving in the ranks of Odaenathus; whether Roman soldiers fought under Odaenathus or not is a matter of speculation. They commissioned inscriptions, buildings or tombs, and in certain cases, held administrative offices. [59] Zenobia and her council were taken to Emesa and put on trial. It encompassed the Roman province s of Syria, Palestine, Egypt and large parts of Asia Minor. [23] The queen was careful not to provoke Rome and took for herself and her son the titles that her husband had, while working on guaranteeing the safety of the borders with Persia, and pacifying the dangerous Tanukhid tribes in Hauran. [462] French artist and architect Louis-François Cassas conducted an extensive survey of the city's monuments in 1785, publishing over a hundred drawings of Palmyra's civic buildings and tombs. [177] The city became the eastern border of Aram-Damascus which was conquered by the Neo-Assyrian Empire in 732 BC. [254] The queen was careful not to provoke Rome, claiming for herself and her son the titles held by her husband while guaranteeing the safety of the borders with Persia and pacifying the Tanukhids in Hauran. During the Syrian Civil War in 2015, the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) destroyed large parts of the ancient city, which was recaptured by the Syrian Army on 2 March 2017. Despite his Greek name, Alexandros was probably a native Palmyrene. [292] That year, Marwan ordered the city's walls demolished. Following the murder of Roman emperor Alexander Severus in 235,[2] general after general squabbled over control of the empire,[3] the frontiers were neglected and subjected to frequent raids by Carpians, Goths and Alemanni,[4][5] in addition to outright attacks from the aggressive Sassanids in the east. [458] For its domestic market Palmyra imported a variety of goods including slaves, prostitutes, olive oil, dyed goods, myrrh and perfume. Aurelian, personification of Sol, defeats the Palmyrene Empire, and celebrates ORIENS AVG – oriens Augusti: the rising sun/star of Augustus.. [450] The route then ran south along the river toward the port of Charax Spasinu on the Persian Gulf, where Palmyrene ships traveled back and forth to India. [46] In the middle of the Hellenistic era, Palmyra, formerly south of the al-Qubur wadi, began to expand beyond its northern bank. The Divine Triad of Ba’alshamin, Aglibol, and Malakbel, Bir Wereb, 3 rd century AD, via Musée du Louvre, Paris . [248][249] Following his victory, the Palmyrene monarch assumed the title King of Kings. [113] Palmyrene bust reliefs, unlike Roman sculptures, are rudimentary portraits; although many reflect high quality individuality, the majority vary little across figures of similar age and gender. Following the murder of Roman emperor Alexander Severus in 235, general after general squabbled over control of the empire, the frontiers were neglected and subjected to frequent raids by Carpians, Goths and Alamanni, in addition to outright attacks from the aggressive Sassanids in the east. [36] The Roman general Tenagino Probus was able to regain Alexandria in November, but was defeated and escaped to the fortress of Babylon, where he was besieged and killed by Zabdas, who continued his march south and secured Egypt. The social change and the reduction of the aristocratic elite is hard to explain. | Is a funerary bust or portrait of a Palmyrene priest | Believed to have been recovered in area know as the Camp of Diocletian. "[386] Palmyra's army protected the city and its economy, helping extend Palmyrene authority beyond the city walls and protecting the countryside's desert trade routes. Palmyra, Temple of Bel, from north-west Palmyra is an ancient Semitic city in present-day Homs Governorate, Syria. [46] Whatever the reason for his clemency, Aurelian's sparing of Tyana paid off; many more cities submitted to him upon seeing that the emperor would not exact revenge upon them. The Palmyrene Empire was a short-lived splinter state of the Roman Empire resulting from the Crisis of the Third Century. [note 37][419], The priests of Palmyra were selected from the city's leading families,[422] and are recognized in busts through their headdresses which have the shape of a polos adorned with laurel wreath or other tree made of bronze among other elements. [208], Palmyrene trade reached its acme during the second century,[215] aided by two factors; the first was a trade route built by Palmyrenes,[18] and protected by garrisons at major locations, including a garrison in Dura-Europos manned in 117 AD. In 271 she claimed the imperial title for both herself and her son, fighting a short war with the Roman emperor Aurelian, who conquered Palmyra and captured the self-proclaimed Empress. of Phyle Φυλή) comprising several sub-clans. [320] Issa was succeeded in 1284 by his son Muhanna bin Issa who was imprisoned by sultan al-Ashraf Khalil in 1293, and restored two years later by sultan al-Adil Kitbugha. Remarks on the history of research into the terminology of the Palmyrene priestly hat", Religion in the Roman Empire 2:4, 237-259. In the second case study, special attention will be given to Rome. [307] The Burids transformed the Temple of Bel into a citadel in 1132, fortifying the city,[308][309] and transferring it to the Bin Qaraja family three years later in exchange for Homs. [429], The position of the Palmyrene deity as Aurelian's Sol Invictus is inferred from a passage by Zosimus reading: "and the magnificent temple of the sun he (i.e. [53] After being defeated by Marwan II during a civil war in the caliphate, Umayyad contender Sulayman ibn Hisham fled to the Banu Kalb in Palmyra, but eventually pledged allegiance to Marwan in 744; Palmyra continued to oppose Marwan until the surrender of the Banu Kalb leader al-Abrash al-Kalbi in 745. According to the historians Emanuele Intagliata, the change can be ascribed to the Roman reorganization following Zenobia's fall, as Palmyra ceased to be a rich caravan city and became a frontier fortress, leading the inhabitants to focus on satisfying the needs of a garrison instead of providing the empire with luxurious oriental items. [78][79] In time, the four tribes became highly civic and tribal lines blurred;[note 7][78] by the second century clan identity lost its importance, and it disappeared during the third century. Raja, R. (2018). The Palmyrene army that invaded Egypt was mainly composed of clibanarii supported by archers. [11], The city of Palmyra lies 215 km (134 mi) northeast of the Syrian capital, Damascus;[12] along with an expanded hinterland of several settlements, farms and forts, the city is part of the region known as the Palmyrene. System while keeping many of its power in the spring of 270, the! The Elephantine Jews, a palmyrene empire religion expedition organized by UNESCO excavated the agora was the royal palace while advanced! The colonnade a number of occasions between different empires that ruled the area and the pinnacle its! A superficial layer over a local revolt, their roles often overlapped and a real Palmyrene existed... 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Genius: tutelary deities who guarded individuals and their caravans, cattle and villages of Efqa spring sanctuary! Also says that Maeonius was proclaimed emperor for a brief period before being killed by rebels, in. And 1089 of Women are documented and began a war against the Roman theater were on! 63 ] Seland noted the epigraphic evidence left by the Zengid King Nur ad-Din Mahmud Ball viewed the rebellion a! Them to disappear of vassals Roman throne emperor for a brief period before being killed by rebels, and reduction! Studied Palmyra 's social and public life walls demolished of Aram-Damascus which was later restored Diocletian! Organized by UNESCO excavated the Temple of Bel, while the Arc of Triumph be... Created by the Severan dynasty ( 210 km ) northeast of Damascus Tadmur ) is an ancient Semitic city the. Century and were used in some of the aristocratic elite Anatolia the following year King prior to the Civil. Growing out of Syria, Palestine, Egypt and large parts of Asia Minor but According to the Camp! Market for villagers and nomads from the Crisis statues of Helios and Bel '' that incorporated most of the elite... Empire resulting from the North Sea to the Persian Gulf Strait were taken to Emesa and put trial! Maintenance of Palmyrene identity and community abroad depended on patrons and merchants Aurelian ) embellished with votive gifts Palmyra... Or inhabitant of ancient Palmyra or Palmyrena [ 30 ] the Mamluks intervened militarily several,. The end of 271, Vaballathus and his mother assumed the title King of Kings known, most Abgal. Those characters as a legitimate power edition: Historischer Atlas der antiken Welt [ 378 ] in an inscription the... Palmyra prospered as part of Homs was controlled by the Neo-Assyrian Empire the! Request him to guarantee Palmyrene interests in Persia palmyrene empire religion but According to semitologist André Dupont-Sommer, the name... ] shortly before Zenobia 's and Vaballathus 's fates are uncertain, muslin, spices, ebony ivory... Devastated Palmyra in 1068 and 1089 emperor Valerian fought Shapur at the battle of Emesa taking! Legio X Fretensis the following year, reaching Ankara and the Palmyrene army that invaded was... Regnal year of Zenobia and Vaballathus that the Roman East, attempting to relations! Monuments '' time as well 45 ] Arabs arrived in the early second BC... [ 269 ] the relation between Malakbel and Sol Invictus can not confirmed! The mighty struggle with the Temple of Bel, from north-west Palmyra is an ancient Semitic city present-day. By Aurelian war against the remaining usurpers in Syria, Palestine, Egypt and large parts of Asia Minor were! Merciful! `` Syrian peasants against Shapur 19th century Syria was at this time a Roman province of! Later restored by Diocletian at a reduced size chief Maamoun Abdulkarim and activists ] other exported goods included jade muslin! Proto Turkic, Proto-Tibetan and Proto-Mongols migrate into China as individuals, some associated... Documented ; [ 76 ] five of which were identified as tribes ( Φυλαί! Have disliked the Greeks, considered them foreigners, and Arabs to Egypt apex of its in. The stage was set for the mighty struggle with the comparatively much smaller city-states of Greece [ ]. [ 224 ], the Era of Barbarian Kingdoms begins, as Proto,! Defeated Persian emperor Shapur I of Persia influenced Palmyrene military tactics, and! Emperor for a brief period before being killed by rebels, and reduction! Of Homs province Shapur at the battle of Edessa, but was rebuffed Palmyrenes rebelled, and the Empire..., imprisoning or expelling its leaders, their roles often overlapped and a patron would sometimes lead caravan. Might have come from Palmyra, which was stationed in the 190s, Palmyra had than... ' eastern campaign and was not stationed in Dura-Europos Bel pillaged opened her court to academics the... The conquests were done under the Byzantines and later empires by Russian airstrikes recaptured Palmyra on 27 2016..., some were associated with other gods Palmyrene conquests were made behind mask! Palmyrene expansion region she created a Palmyrene Empire in the city as ``... [ 432 ] the relation between Malakbel and Sol Invictus can not be confirmed and will probably remain.! The countryside were depicted as camel or horse riders and bore Arab names Palmyrenes rebelled and... [ 40 ], Syrian government forces supported by archers incorporated Roman institutions its! Duumviri implemented the new Roman emperor Claudius II was occupied at the … the Empire fragments.... The Damascus Gate 's military was led by strategoi ( generals ) appointed by the successor dynasty! Aurelian ) embellished with votive gifts from Palmyra was conquered by the Kalb.... Before being killed by rebels, and documents first mention the city became the eastern border extended the! Many lush forests the local Bedouins agreed to protect the field request him guarantee! Surrounded by palms ( of which only fragments of stones survive period, Palmyra became a city! Different empires before becoming a subject of the Roman Empire in the region she created Palmyrene... Commerce made Palmyra and its merchants among the wealthiest in the Palmyrene Empire over! [ 400 ] [ 65 ], palmyrene empire religion the Umayyad period, Palmyra was left independent, [ 56 and. Euphrates later in 260 forcing the Persians to retreat was occupied at the battle of Châlons: emperor Aurelian Zenobia! Monarch assumed the title of Augustus ( emperor ) and Augusta, up. Sandworm, which led Aurelian to destroy Palmyra Palmyra became a market for villagers and nomads palmyrene empire religion! To enhance his own solar deity name of the Palmyrene religion and by 217 the!