And Novolac on heating with formaldehyde undergoes cross linking to … (2016). The ease of molding polymers into different shapes and their relatively low cost of production has been the main reason for their universal usage. Very smooth molding can be obtained from this polymer. Required fields are marked *, Bakelite Structure Properties Application. Bakelite | chemical compound. This resin is then poured into containers and is left to harden. [2] The natural physical appearance of Bakelite is a brown/amber iridescent lustre. The chains comprise many repeat units, formed from monomers. The chemical formula of bakelite can be written as (C6H6O-CH2OH)n. Some important properties of bakelite are listed below. Elvenkrafte.com. Answer/Explanation. Once hard, it is crushed into a powder, which is then mixed with various fillers. Bakelite was the first truly synthetic, as well as the first commercially produced, synthetic resin. [2] The reason for mixing the pure resin with fillers is to enhance certain physical properties that will be desired in the material’s final state. It is a thermosetting phenol-formaldehyde resin formed by the condensation reaction of phenol with formaldehyde. The structure of bisphenol-A diglycidyl ether epoxy resin is … We are surrounded by objects, most of which, some way or the other have a polymer associated with them. Ltd. Download books and chapters from book store. ( Log Out /  Water and steam are then drawn off as the mixture cools, and a viscous brown resin remains. It is produced through condensation reaction between phenol and formaldehyde in the presence of either basic or acidic catalyst. Bakelite, which is also known as a 'material of a thousand uses' is chemically called polyoxybenzyl methylene glycol anhydride. For polyethylene, arguably the simplest polymer, this is demonstrated by the following equation. (b) Bakelite is a condensation polymer. (2016). These are one of the oldest polymers that were synthesized by man. The repeating structural unit of most simple polymers not only reflects the monomer(s) from which the polymers are constructed, but also provides a concise means for drawing structures to represent these macromolecules. (d) Soften on heating and harden on cooling, can be reused. Cross-linked or Network polymers: These are usually formed from bi-functional and tri-functional monomers and contain strong covalent bonds between various linear polymer chains, e.g. Bakelite is obtained when Novolac is allowed to undergo cross-linking in the presence of a cross-linking agent. To which class, thermoplastic and thermosetting does bakelite belong? Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. [online] Available at: American Chemical Society. The preparation of bakelite involves several steps, as illustrated below. Your email address will not be published. Bakelite was the first FRP discovered by Dr. Baekeland. The fact that Bakelite is unaffected by heat in this way classifies it as a thermoset.[5]. Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. JJ Rossouw - 18961371 You hop across the nylon carpet to the kitchen, eat your breakfast on a nylon bowl after cleaning your teeth with a toothbrush whose bristles are made of nylon. ( Log Out /  Bakelite is a polymer made up of the monomers phenol and formaldehyde. Plastic: All the plastic materials are organic polymers with a repeating unit called monomer. As the title describes, the structure of these polymers is like branches originating at random points from a single linear chain. [online] Available at. Bakelite was patented on December 7, ... Polyurethanes are in the class of compounds called reaction polymers, which include epoxies, unsaturated polyesters, ... and the cross-linking reaction is commonly referred to as curing. Each polymer chain will … (c) Become infusible on moulding so cannot be reused. As a result of these branches, the polymers are not closely packed together. Further, Bakelite has been used for making the handles of a variety of utensils. The starting monomers of bakelite are phenol and formaldehyde i.e.Bakelite is a thermosetting polymer. Calculate the number average and weight average molecular weight of the sample. 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After this final setting of the material it will not be possible to heat and reshape it again. Monomers join together to form a long straight chain with some branched chains of different lengths. The initial product of this reaction is linear product called Novolac (which is used in paints). Q:-What is crystal field splitting energy? The pressure and heat liquefy the resin again, forcing it to take the shape of the mould where it will harden into its final form in a few seconds. We can live our entire life with nylon on our side. This phenol-formaldehyde resin is a thermosetting polymer. Bakelite is used for making electrical switches and switch boards. These intermediate condensation products are used as resins in different industries. As such, Bakelite is one of the commercially manufactured polymers that we witness in our daily lives. History is shaped by the materials we develop and use. Bakelite is an early phenol/formaldehyde resin which is highly crosslinked thermoset material. Phenolic resins are also extensively used as adhesives and binding agents. This is the chemical structure of Bakelite. [online] Available at: Wikipedia. Owing to its low electrical conductivity, bakelite is resistant to electric current. Bakelite First Synthetic Plastic – National Historic Chemical Landmark – American Chemical Society. We are surrounded by objects, most of which, some way or the other have a polymer associated with them. How does the magnitude of Δ o decide the actual configuration of d-orbitals in a coordination entity?. This resin is then poured into containers and is left to harden. Here ethylene (ethene) is the monomer, and the corresponding linear polymer is called high-density polyethylene (HDPE). (c) It has a coiled structure and chains held together by weak van der waals forces (d) It has fibrous structure and reactive sites at various double bonds. ( Log Out /  It is a thermosetting polymer and Bakelite has high strength meaning it basically retains its form even after extensive molding. Melamine formaldehyde resin is a condensation polymer of melamine (2, 4, 6-triamino-1, 3, 5-triazine) and formaldehyde. It is a plastic which can be drawn into fibres or moulded into daily products for making amenities. [2] The new mixture is then forced into heated moulds under high pressure. Structure. On the basis of structures of polymers… When chemists began to recognize that many natural resins and fibers were polymers, Baekeland investigated the reactions of phenol and formaldehyde. What are the Desirable Properties of Bakelite? It is a thermosetting phenol-formaldehyde resin formed by the condensation reaction of phenol with formaldehyde. “Bakelite was an important step in the development of the plastics industry and the entrance of plastics into people’s every day lives,” science writer Susan Freinkel, author of Plastic: A Toxic Love Story (Houghton Mifflin, 2011), tells OpenMind. We cannot deny the presence of polymers in our lives. The resultant polymers—known as phenol-formaldehyde resin, urea-formaldehyde resin, and melamine-formaldehyde resin—are widely used as adhesives in plywood and other structural wood products. [1] Bakelite’s characteristics include having low electrical conductivity and high heat and chemical resistance. A polymer sample contains 30%(by weight) of chains with molecular weight 10000, 30%(by weight) of the chains with molecular weight 20000, and the rest of chains with molecular weight 30000. They are further used for protective purposes as well as in the coating industry. Write the names and structures of monomers of bakelite. New York: Marshall Cavendish. [4], Image: https://www2.chemistry.msu.edu/faculty/reusch/virttxtjml/polymers.htm, Figure 2 – A three-dimensional representation of the cross-linked product of phenol and formaldehyde. Initial methods of preparing bakelite involved the heating of formaldehyde and phenol in the presence of one of the following catalysts -zinc chloride (ZnCl2), hydrochloric acid (HCl), or ammonia (NH3). This reaction creates even more heat until a cooling process is triggered. Most plastics contain organic polymers. In the 1930’s, Nylon was invented and became the first widely-used synthetic fiber. He first produced a soluble phenol-formaldehyde resin called “Novolak,” which never became a market success. The vast majority of these polymers are formed from chains of carbon atoms, 'pure' or with the addition of: oxygen, nitrogen, or sulfur. (2016). Answer. A thermosetting plastic is a plastic that liquefies and is malleable when heated. (2016). Some of the plastic structures are drawn below. Bakelite is a space-network polymer. HJG Van Zyl - 18300111, https://www2.chemistry.msu.edu/faculty/reusch/virttxtjml/polymers.htm, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phenol_formaldehyde_resin, http://www.elvenkrafte.com/bakelite%20presentation.htm, https://www.acs.org/content/acs/en/education/whatischemistry/landmarks/bakelite.html, https://global.britannica.com/science/Bakelite. Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. [online] Available at: Anon, (2016). Along came Bakelite – which is the first example of a truly synthetic polymer (the rest were just modifications of cellulose). New Page 1. Polymers. So, we can, in general, say that Bakelite is a condensation polymer or a phenolic resin. The starting monomers of bakelite are phenol and formaldehyde i.e.Bakelite is a thermosetting polymer. These desired properties include: better mouldability, greater toughness and strength, and greater heat-, water-, chemical-, and shock-resistance. (a) Bakelite (b) Teflon (c) Butyl rubber (d) Melamine formaldehyde resin Solution: (a, d) Bakelite is a condensation polymer of phenol and formaldehyde. Figure 1 – The figure shows the chemical process whereby phenol and formaldehyde are mixed and heated in the presence of an alkaline catalyst. Bakelite is made up of Phenol and formaldehyde. In the first half of the 20th century they were made into very important plastics such as Bakelite … [online] Available at: Encyclopedia Britannica. Its chemical name is polyoxybenzyl methylene glycol anhydride. Inventors and inventions. Bakelite moldings are heat-resistant and scratch-resistant. Bakelite is a polymer made up of the monomers phenol and formaldehyde. from Chemistry Polymers Class 12 Haryana Board - English Medium. Some 5,000 years ago, we learned how to make alloys of copper, and the Bronze Age began. We cannot deny the presence of polymers in our lives. Question 14. Preparation of Bakelite It was developed by the Belgian-American chemist Leo Baekeland in New York in 1907. The introduction of Bakelitethe worlds first synthetic plasticin 1907 marked the introduction of the Polymer Age. Whereas, when the quantity of formaldehyde taken is more than that of phenol in the reacting mixture, and the reaction occurs in a basic medium, the condensation product is known as Resol. Bakelite Plastic Properties. HDPE is composed of macromolecules in which n ranges from 10,000 to … The first synthetic polymer, a phenol-formaldehyde polymer, was introduced under the name “Bakelite Bakelite was originally used to make billiard balls. II. It is a thermosetting plastic. Structure of Bakelite As we now know the Bakelite preparation method as well as its structure, let us now have a look at the properties of Bakelite. S Meyer - 16719794 The characteristics of Bakelite made it particularly suitable as a molding compound, an adhesive or binding agent, a varnish, and a protective coating. bakelite, melamine, etc. Examples of these fillers include: asbestos, wood flour, fabric, paper, and cellulose. [6] Bakelite was the first truly synthetic, as well as the first commercially produced, synthetic resin. Unlike linear and branched polymers, which are composed of long molecules that make them more or less crystalline, space-network polymers are highly and irregularly cross-linked throughout the structure. For thousands of years, humans used stone to fashion tools. Material Science A244, M&M Engineering Department, University of Stellenbosch, Bakelite is an early polymer, comprised of a phenol-formaldehyde mixture, with Phenol being derived from coal tar, and Formaldehyde derived from methanol. Phenol is made to react with formaldehyde. Author has 535 answers and 3M answer views Bakelite is an early polymer, comprised of a phenol-formaldehyde mixture, with Phenol being derived from coal tar, and Formaldehyde derived from methanol. Create a free website or blog at WordPress.com. Bakelite, which is also known as a 'material of a thousand uses' is chemically called polyoxybenzyl methylene glycol anhydride. Nylon is the most useful synthetic material with applications varying from daily life activities to industries. It can also be made into different colours, but this depends on filler that it is mixed with during the manufacturing process. It is one of the most common and important polymers that are used to make different parts of many objects. The cross-linked product of phenol and formaldehyde has the following structure. In general, phenol taken in excess acts as the cross-linking agent. Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. ( Log Out /  Your email address will not be published. Bakelite is the trade name for phenol formaldehyde resin. Answer: (c) It has a coiled structure and chains held together by weak van der waals forces Polymers are large molecules that have a structure of repeating units, often producing a strength that makes them ideal for construction. Now coming to the uses of Bakelite, since this element has a low electrical conductivity and high heat resistance it can be used in manufacturing electrical switches and machine parts of electrical systems. Preparation of Bakelite Video Lecture from Polymers Chapter of Chemistry Class 12 for HSC, IIT JEE, CBSE & NEET. The condensation reaction of the two reactants in a controlled acidic or basic medium results in the formation of ortho and para hydroxymethyl phenols and their derivatives. Recently Viewed Questions of Class 12th chemistry. They are also resistant to several destructive solvents. (i) Linear polymer: These polymers consist of long and straight chains. Which of the following polymers are condensation polymers? A nylon umbrella over your head is used to move out of the house in heavy sunlight or to keep out of the r… Bakelite is the commercial name for the polymer obtained by the polymerization of phenol and formaldehyde. Bakelite was particularly suitable for the emerging electrical and automobile industries because of its extraordinarily high resistance to electricity, heat, and chemical action. Answer: Explaination: (a) and (c) e.g. Join BYJU’S or download our app to know more about polymers with the most simplified approach of learning. Bakelite is one of these polymers which is commercially manufactured for multiple different uses. Based on Structure of Polymers Classification of Polymers. These polymers are depicted as follows: Based on Mode of Polymerisation: Polymers can also be classified on the basis of mode of polymerisation into two subgroups. Bakelite, formed from the condensation reaction of phenol with formaldehyde, became hugely popular – perhaps you have seen products with Bakelite, such as … (a) Heavily branched cross linked polymers, (b) Linear slightly branched long chain molecules. Although polymers were first invented in the 1860’s, it was not mass-produced until the early 1900’s when Bakelite was used as a replacement for wood, ivory, tortoise-shell, etc. B Bakelite was the first truly synthetic, as well as the first commercially produced, synthetic resin. Centuries later the Iron Age introduced iron as the material of choice. [6], When phenol (C6H6O), which is an organic compound[1] and a common disinfectant[3], is mixed with formaldehyde (CH2O) in the presence of an alkali catalyst and heat[2], an exothermic reaction results. The condensation reaction of phenol with formaldehyde in the presence of acid or base as catalyst. H2O is drawn off during the process which results in a viscous, syrup-like resin that will be processed further in order to enhance certain desired qualities in the material. Change ), NT Conradie - 19673418 The result is a hard and tough material that is unaffected by heat, electricity, water, chemicals, most acids, and has an incredibly wide range of applications. [1], Image: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phenol_formaldehyde_resin. When the phenol is taken in excess and the reaction medium is made acidic, the product of the condensation reaction obtained is acidic. (iii) Synthetic Polymers These are man-made polymers that are used in day-to-day life and in industries, e.g., plastic (polythene), synthetic fibres (nylon-6,6) and synthetic rubbers (Buna-S), etc. Q:-Calculate the osmotic pressure in pascals exerted by a solution prepared by dissolving 1.0 g of polymer of molar mass 185,000 in 450 mL of water at 37°C. Bakelite. Structure Bakelite is an early polymer, comprised of a phenol-formaldehyde mixture, with Phenol being derived from coal tar, and Formaldehyde derived from methanol. (a) Dacron is obtained by heating terephthalic acid with ethylene glycol at 425–475 K. It is a condensation polymer. Bakelite deforms permanently and retains its … CH 2 O) n. Its chemical name is “polyoxybenzylmethylenglycolanhydride”. This phenol-formaldehyde resin is a thermosetting polymer. So, we can, in general, say that Bakelite is a condensation polymer or a phenolic resin. The chemical process and the final atomic structure of Bakelite are shown in Figures 1 and 2 respectively. A hard, infusible, and chemically resistant plastic, Bakelite was based on a chemical combination of phenol and formaldehyde (phenol-formaldehyde resin), two compounds that were derived from coal tar and wood alcohol (methanol), respectively, at that time. (2008). Bakelite is a thermosetting phenol formaldehyde resin, developed in 1907–1909 by Belgian chemist Dr. Leo Baekeland. – the figure shows the chemical process whereby phenol and formaldehyde are mixed and in! Does the magnitude of Δ O decide the actual configuration of d-orbitals a... Or moulded into daily products for making electrical switches and switch boards ( c Become... ( 2, 4, 6-triamino-1, 3, 5-triazine ) and ( c Become. Of Δ O decide the actual configuration of d-orbitals in a coordination entity? is of... 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Phenol/Formaldehyde resin which is also known as a result of these fillers include: asbestos, wood,. Log in: You are commenting using your Twitter account condensation polymer or a phenolic resin, fabric,,... By the condensation reaction between phenol and formaldehyde invented and became the widely-used...: ( a ) and ( c ) e.g cross linked polymers, ( 2016 ) and formaldehyde is! Protective purposes as well as the first commercially produced, synthetic resin HSC, JEE. Become infusible on moulding so can not deny the presence of a cross-linking agent obtained when Novolac is to..., urea-formaldehyde resin, urea-formaldehyde resin, and melamine-formaldehyde resin—are widely used as resins in different.! Is acidic to recognize that many natural resins and fibers were polymers, Baekeland investigated the of. And is left to harden bakelite was the first truly synthetic, as as! You are commenting using your Facebook account cross linked polymers, Baekeland the... Of melamine ( 2, 4, 6-triamino-1, 3, 5-triazine ) and.! In different industries bakelite has been the main reason for their universal usage basic acidic. And switch boards Belgian-American chemist Leo Baekeland, some way or the other have a polymer associated with them s! Bakelite was the first half of the 20th century they were made different...